학습 력/기억력 증강
학습 력과 기억력 산술 력 증강 효과가 있다
1)"Various tests of psychomotor performance were carried out in a group of 16 healthy male volunteers given Korean ginseng (G 115) and in a similar group given identical placebo capsules under double-blind conditions However, end performance of the G 115 group was superior statistically to the placebo group only in mental arithmeticIt is concluded that G 115 may be superior to placebo in improving certain psychomotor functions in healthy subjects.
고려인삼(G115)을 건강한 16명의 남자 지원자를 대상으로 대조군은 프라세보 캅셀을 투여하고 이중 맹검 조건으로 정신운동 수행에 대한 다양한 실험을 하였다. 비록 대조군에 비해 통계적으로 산술 력 에서만 만족할만한 우월성이 있었지만 건강한 대상들에서 고려인삼이 정신운동 기능을 대조군에 비해 증진 했다고 결론 짓는다.
2)Panax ginseng extract was administered to aged Fischer 344 rats and evaluated using the 8-arm radial maze task. Daily administration of ginseng extract ameliorated the impairment of learning performance. "These results suggest that subchronic treatment with ginseng extract improves spatial cognitive impairment in aged rats."
늙은 Fischer 344 쥐에 고려인삼 추출물을 투여하고 8-arm radial maze task을 사용하여 평가 하였다.날마다 인삼 추출물을 투여하면 학습 행위가 손상되는 것을 감소시킨다, 이 결과는 준 장기적으로 인삼 추출물을 투여하는 것은 늙은 쥐에 있어 공간 인지 손상을 개선한다고 추측된다.
3)"The present investigation has shown that Ginseng root saponins facilitate the learning and memory of normal male Wistar rats, while the effect of Ginseng stem-leaf saponins on antielectroconvulsive shock-induced impairment of memory consolidation in rats is more intensive than that of root saponins. Both Ginseng root and stem-leaf saponins can significantly raise the levels of biogenic monoamines in normal rat's brain."
인삼 근 사포닌이 정상적인 수컷 Wistar 쥐에 있어 기억력과 학습 력을 개선하는 반면 인삼의 줄기와 잎 사포닌이 쥐에 있어 전기 경련으로 유도된 충격에 대항하여 기억 경변의 수복 효과는 근 사포닌보다 더욱 강력하였다. 인삼 근과 줄기 잎의 사포닌은 정상 쥐의 뇌에서 monoamines의 수준을 의미 있게 높힌다
4)"Standardized ginseng extract, administered in a dose of 30 mg/kg orally for 10 days prior to the beginning of the training session, markedly tended to eliminate the memory-impairing effect of electroconvulsive shock in rats.
쥐에 있어 표준화된 인삼 추출물을 30mg/kg용량으로 훈련 시작 10일 동안 경구 투여 하면 전기경련충격으로 인한 기억 손실을 현저히 감소시키는 경향이 있다.
1.J Neurscl Res. 2001 Mar 15;63(6):509-15.
Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 improve spatial learning and increase hippocampal synaptophysin level in mice.Mook-Jung I, Hong HS, Boo JH, Lee KH, Yun SH, Cheong MY, Joo I, Huh K, Jung MW.Brain Disease Research Center, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.We investigated the cognition enhancing effects of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1. Mice were trained in a Morris water maze following injection (i.p.) of Rb1 (1 mg/kg) or Rg1 (1 mg/kg) for 4 days. Both Rb1- and Rg1-injected mice showed enhanced spatial learning compared to control animals. The hippocampus, but not the frontal cortex, of treated mice contained higher density of a synaptic marker protein, synaptophysin, compared to control mice. Electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices revealed that Rb1 or Rg1 injection did not change the magnitude of paired-pulse facilitation or long-term potentiation. Our results suggest that Rb1 and Rg1 enhance spatial learning ability by increasing hippocampal synaptic density without changing plasticity of individual synapses.
Rb1과 Rg1은 해마조직의 시넵스 밀도를 증가시켜 (개개 시냅스의 변화 적응성이 아니라)공간 학습능력을 강화 한다
Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on central cholinergic metabolism.Benishin CG, Lee R, Wang LC, Liu HJ.Department of Physiology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.Ginsenosides, the saponins of ginseng, are bioactive ingredients which exert many beneficial effects. One ginsenoside, Rb1, extracted from North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.), partially prevents the memory deficits induced by a cholinergic agent (scopolamine) in rats. In vitro studies show that Rb1 has no effect on quinuclidinyl benzylate binding or on acetylcholinesterase activity, but facilitates the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from hippocampal slices. The increase in ACh release is associated with an increased uptake of choline into nerve endings; however, calcium influx is unaltered. The ability of Rb1 to prevent memory deficits may be related to facilitation of ACh metabolism in the central nervous system.
Rb1의 기억력 결핍 방어력은 중추신경에서 Ach대사를 용이하게 하는 것과 관련 있는 것 같다
3. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1994;29(4):241-5
[Study on the nootropic mechanism of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1--influence on mouse brain development][Article in Chinese]Ying Y, Zhang JT, Shi CZ, Qu ZW, Liu Y.Institute of Food Safety Control and Inspection, Ministry of Public Health, Beijing.Weaning mice were supplied drinking water containing Rb1 or Rg1 0.125 or 0.25 mg.ml-1 for 4 weeks. Rb1 (28.6 and 56.1 mg.kg-1) and Rg1 (27.4 and 53.9 mg.kg-1) were found to accelerate young mice body and brain development as well as facilitate memory acquisition in step down and step through avoidance response tests. With the technique of quantitative measurement synapses, we foundfor the first time that Rb1 and Rg1 administration for 4 weeks can increase synapse number in the hippocampal CA3 region of mice. This is the morphological basis for explaining Rb1 and Rg1 induced facilitation of learning and memory
Rb1과 Rg1은 젊은 생쥐의 신체와 뇌의 발달을 촉진하고 기억력 획득을 용이하게 하였으며 생쥐의 해마조직 CA3에서 시넵스의 숫자를 증가시키는 것을 발견하였다.(학습 력과 기억력을 향상)
4.Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 1996;91(1):15-22.
Ginseng root prevents learning disability and neuronal loss in gerbils with 5-minute forebrain ischemia.
Wen TC, Yoshimura H, Matsuda S, Lim JH, Sakanaka M.Department of Anatomy, Ehime University School of Medicine, Japan.The present study was designed to investigate the possible neuroprotective activity of ginseng roots in 5-min ischemic gerbils using a step-down passive avoidance task and subsequent neuron and synapse counts in the hippocampal CA1 region. The following drugs were administered for 7 days before the induced ischemia: red ginseng powder (RGP), crude ginseng saponin (CGS), crude ginseng non-saponin (CGNS), and pure ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1 and Ro. Oral administration of RGP significantly prevented the ischemia-induced decrease in response latency, as determined by the passive avoidance test, and rescued a significant number of ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal injections of CGS exhibited a similar neuroprotective effect. CGNS had a significant but less potent protective effect against impaired passive avoidance task and degeneration of hippocampal CA1 neurons. Ginsenoside Rb1 significantly prolonged the response latency of ischemic gerbils and rescued a significant number of ischemic CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas ginsenosides Rg1 and Ro were ineffective. Postischemic treatment with RGP, CGS or ginsenoside Rb1 was ineffective. The neuroprotective activities of RGP, CGS and ginsenoside Rb1 were confirmed by electron microscopy counts of synapses in individual strata of the CA1 field of ischemic gerbils pretreated with the drugs. These findings suggest that RGP and CGS are effective in the prevention of delayed neuronal death, and that ginsenoside Rb1 is one of the neuroprotective molecules within ginseng root
홍삼가루와 인삼 조 사포닌은 지연된 신경세포 사멸을 예방하는데 효과적이며 Rb1이 인삼에 있어 신경보호 물질의 하나이다.
5.Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 May;29(5):860-8.
Abeta(25-35)-induced memory impairment, axonal atrophy, and synaptic loss are ameliorated by M1, A metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type saponins.Tohda C, Matsumoto N, Zou K, Meselhy MR, Komatsu K.1Research Center for Ethnomedicines, Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, Japan.
We previously screened neurite outgrowth activities of several Ginseng drugs in human neuroblastoma, and demonstrated that protopanaxadiol (ppd)-type saponins were active constituents. Since ppd-type saponins are known to be completely metabolized to 20-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (M1) by intestinal bacteria when taken orally, M1 and ginsenoside Rb1, as a representative of ppd-type saponins, were examined for cognitive disorder. In a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by Abeta(25-35) i.c.v. injection, impaired spatial memory was recovered by p.o. administration of ginsenoside Rb1 or M1. Although the expression levels of phosphorylated NF-H and synaptophysin were reduced in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus of Abeta(25-35)-injected mice, their levels in ginsenoside Rb1- and M1-treated mice were almost completely recovered up to control levels. Potencies of the effects were not different between ginsenoside Rb1 and M1 when given orally, suggesting that most of the ginsenoside Rb1 may be metabolized to M1, and M1 is an active principal of ppd-type saponins for the memory improvement. In cultured rat cortical neurons, M1 showed extension activity of axons(축색돌기), but not dendrites(수지상 돌기). The axon-specific outgrowth was seen even when neuritic atrophy had already progressed in response to administration of Abeta(25-35) as well as in the normal condition. These results suggest that M1 has axonal extension activity in degenerated neurons, and improve memory disorder and synaptic loss induced by Abeta(25-35). M1 was shown to be effective in vitro and in vivo, indicating that Ginseng drugs containing ppd-type saponins may reactivate neuronal function in AD by p.o. administration.PMID: 15010693 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLIN
6.Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2001 Jan;36(1):1-4.
[Effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on learning and memory impairment induced by beta-amyloid peptide(25-35) and its mechanism of action][Article in Chinese]Wang XY, Chen J, Zhang JT.Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.AIM: To study the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the learning and memory impairment in mice induced by aggregated beta-AP(25-35). METHODS: Mice were administered Rg1(5, 10 mg.kg-1, i.p.) for 10 d and control mice received daily i.p. injections of saline after the intracerebroventricular injection of aggregated beta-AP(25-35). After the final treatment, passive avoidance and performance in the Morris water maze (MWM) were assessed. and the activity of cortical and hippocampal ChAT and AchE were detected after the final behavior test. RESULTS: Ginsenoside Rg1 (5, 10 mg.kg-1, i.p.) significantly ameliorated the learning and memory impairment induced by beta-AP(25-35). Rg1 (5, 10 mg.kg-1) decreased the latencies and swim distances of mice to reach a hidden platform and improved the corresponding changes in search strategies occurred in the Morris water maze, and Rg1 (10 mg.kg-1, i.p.), increased step-through latencies also. Biochemical analysis showed that Rg1 (5, 10 mg.kg-1, i.p.), prevented the cortical and hippocampal ChAT activity decline induced by beta-AP(25-35), and showed inhibition of the activity of AchE, although beta-AP(25-35) showed no effect on the cortical and hippocampal AchE activity. CONCLUSION: These data showed that ginsenoside Rg1 significantly improved the learning and memory impairment induced by beta-AP(25-35), and this effect could be attributed to its inhibition of AchE and increase of ChAT activity.
PMID: 12579850 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Rg1은 학습능력과 기억력을 의미 있게 개선하였고 이 효과는 AchE의 억제와 chAT작용의 증가이다.