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정신 및 육체에 대한 작용

  • 관리자 (sinbio)
  • 2019-02-21 10:56:00
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정신 육체에 대한 작용
1.항 스트레스 작용:육체적 정신적 스트레스에 적절하게 대처해준다.
2.운동 및 지구력강화: 근육 산소 이용을 증가시켜 운동 및 지구력 높인다.
3.신경안정 및 공격력 억제:선천적 공격성을 억제하고 항 불안 효과가 있다
4.삶의 질 향상:정신적 육체적 만족감을 높여 준다.
5.약물 중독 및 환경 호르몬에 대한 작용: 마약의 남용과 의존성을 예방해 주며 환경호르몬으로부터 보호해 준다.
Ginseng appears to act mainly on the hypothalamus and has a sparing actionon the adrenal cortex, mediated through the anterior pituitary and ACTH release. It appears to tune the adrenal cortex so that phase1 of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is more efficient. Response is stronger and quicker andfeedback control is more effective so  that when stress decreases, glucocorticoid      levels fall more rapidly to nomal.During prolonged stress (or phase 2 of GAS) glucocorticoid production is reduced by ginseng( a sparing effect), while at the same time adrenal capacity is increased (atrophic effect). Ginseng also raises plasma ACTH cortisone in the relaxed (non-stressed )state when given by injection (thereby possibly generating a sense of alertness and well-being)

1. 항 스트레스 작용
1)"We have examined the binding of 44% saponin from Panax ginseng, and extracts from Eleuthrococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng) to classical steroid receptors in vitro. Both extracts had demonstrable affinity for progestin, mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors; the Siberian ginseng also bound to estrogen receptors. Highest affinity binding was to glucocorticoid receptors… Such interactions may explain the reported glucocorticoid-like effects of ginseng in vivo." 
우리는 실험관 내 실험에서 고전적인 스테로이드 수용 체에 가시오가피와 고려인삼cml 사포닌이 44% 결합함을 실험하였다. 양자 모두는 프로게스틴, 미네랄코리티코이드와 글루코 코르티코이드 모두에 친화력이 있음을 보여주었는데 가시오가피는 여성 호르몬 수용 체에도 친화력을 보여주었다. 가장 높은 친화력은 글루코 코르티코 수용체인데 이는 인삼의 생체 내 글루코코르티코이드 양 효과를 설명하는 것이다. 

2) A study investigated the effects of ginseng total saponins (GTS) and five ginsenosides on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and membrane capacitance using rat adrenal chromaffin cells. It was "found that GTS and ginsenosides exerted inhibitory effects on both Ca2+ currents and deltaCm in rat adrenal chromaffin cells. These results suggest that ginseng saponins regulate catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells and this regulation could be the cellular basis of antistress effects induced by ginseng."
인삼의 총사포닌(GTS)와 5개의 진세노사이드를 전압의존 Ca++경로와 세포막 용량에 대한 효과  실험을 ratadrenalchromaffin세포에서 하였다. GTS와 진세노사이드는 adrenalchromaffin 세포에서 Ca++유입과 deltaCm모두에 억제 효과를 보임이  관찰되었다. 이는 인삼 사포닌이  항 스트레스 효과를  세포를 기초하여 조절 하는 것이라 생각된다. 
3) The antistress and antifatigue properties of a Chinese ginseng preparation were tested on Swiss albino mice, exposed to various experimental models of stress, and were compared with those of piracetam…. Both piracetam and ginseng treatment provided good protection against electroshock stress when compared to the untreated mice; fighting scores, incidence of tonic convulsion and mortality were significantly less in the treated groups. In the heat stress experiments, both piracetam and ginseng provided significant protection to the treated mice against exposure to heat. Ginseng treatment provided effective adaptation to fatigue and increased endurance; piracetam showed some antifatigue effects on the male mice only. Ginseng did not depress motility, while piracetam did. These results are discussed in the light of the antistress properties of the drugs as reported in the literature.
중국 인삼 제제의 항 스트레스와 항 피로 작용이 스위스 알비노 생쥐를  스트레스의 다양한 실험 모델에 노출시켜 피라세탐과 비교하여 실험하였다. 피라세탐과 인삼 처치는 모두 전기 충격 스트레스에서 대조 군에 비해 좋은 보호를 보여주었다.(싸움, tonic경련,사망률이 의미 있게 감소하였다) 열 충격 실험에서 피라세탐과 인삼은 의미 있는 보호작용을 보여주었는데 피라세탐은 수컷 쥐에서만 항 피로 효과를 보여주었다. 인삼은 사망률을 줄이지 못하였으나 피라세탐은 줄였다. 
4)Korean Ginseng was tested for 2 pharmacological activities, namely anti-stress activities and anabolic activity. A significant increase in mice swimming time was shown by Ginseng compared to the control group.
6) When ginseng saponin mixture was administered to rats intraperitoneally, plasma ACTH and corticosterone increased significantly 30, 60 and 90 min after the treatment… Thus the ginseng saponin was found to act on the hypothalamus and/or hypophysis primarily, and stimulated ACTH secretion which resulted in increased synthesis of corticosterone in the adrenal cortex 

7)원숭이를 대상으로 한 실험에서 Glucocorticosteroid의 분비는 스트레스에 대처하는데 필요한 만큼만 분비한다(Udelmsman et al 1986) 
2.운동력 /지구력 강화
1) Laboratory tests have demonstrated improved running ability, increased climbing performance and prolonged swimming endurance of test animals. In man, there have been mixed reports on Ginsengs efficacy in the areas of enhanced performances.
동물 실험에서 달리기 및 오르기 능력을 증강하고 수영시간을 늘린다. 사람에서는 수행 력을 강화하는 인삼의 효과에 상반된 보고서가 있다.
2)In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study 50 healthy male sports teachers aged 21 to 47 years received every day for six weeks two capsules of a preparation containing ginseng extract, dimethylaminoethanol bitartrate, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements, or two capsules of placebo. The subjects then performed an exercise test on a treadmill at increasing work loads… "The results indicate that the ginseng preparation increased the subjects' work capacity by improving muscular oxygen utilization.
21세에서 47세까지50명의  건강한 남자 스포츠 강사를 대상으로 6주간 인삼 제제를 함유한 2캅셀, dimethylaminoethanol bitartrate,비타민,미네랄과 미량 원소와 위약을 2캅셀씩 투여한 무작위 이중 맹검 실험하였다  대상자는 트레이드 밀에서 강도를 높이면서 운동을 수행하는 실험을 하였다. 인삼제제는 근육 산소이용을 증가시켜서 대상자의 운동 능력을 증가시킨다는 것을 보여준다.
3) "Short-term (4 days), but not acute, treatment with ginseng saponin significantly prolonged the aerobic endurance of non-trained rats exercising at approximately 70% VO2max… Both the liver and skeletal muscle glycogen levels of the GS- treated rats were slightly higher than those of saline-treated controls after exhaustive exercise. These results indicate that GS enhances exercise endurance by altering fuel homeostasis during prolonged exercise, presumably by increasing FFA utilization in preference to glucose for cellular energy demands.
4일간 단기간 인삼 사포닌을 처치는 훈련되지 않은 쥐의 운동 력의  유 산소 인내를 의미 있게 증진시켰다.(70% VO2max) .  극심한 운동 후 간과 골격근의 글리코겐 수치는 식염수로 처치한 대조 군에 비해 인삼 처치 쥐에서 약간 높았다. 이들 결과는 세포 내 에너지 요구에 포도당을 대신해 FFA를 증가시켜 지속된 운동 중 연료 항상성을 바꿔 운동 인내를 강화하는 것을 보여준다.
3.신경 안정/공격력 억제
1)"The psychotropic actions of crude ginseng saponins, pure ginsenoside Rb1 (GS-Rb1) and ginsenoside Rg1 (GS-Rg1) obtained from the root of Panax ginseng, were evaluated from their effects on agonistic behavior in mice…. When the resident mouse was treated with crude ginseng saponins aggressive episodes were significantly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner. … Although the highest dose of crude ginseng saponins suppressed locomotion frequency, it appears that both crude ginseng saponins and GS-Rb1 possess a specific psychotropic action on agonistic behavior.
인삼 조  사포닌과 순수 Rb,Rg1의 정신 자극 작용을 생쥐에서 싸움효과로 평가하였다.
수련중인 생쥐들에게 인삼 조 사포닌을 처치하면 공격성 발현이  용량의존적으로 의미 있게 억제되었다.비록 최고양의 인삼 조 사포닌이 운동 횟수를 억제하였지만  인삼 조 사포닌과 Rb1이 싸움 행동에 특별한 정신 자극 작용을 지닌 것으로 보인다.

2)"The present study investigated the acute and chronic effects of crude ginseng saponin (CGS), p.r. ginsenoside Rb1 (GS-Rb1) and ginsenoside Rg1 (GS-Rg1) on maternal aggression in mice… These findings indicate that the root of Panax ginseng contains a psychoactive ingredient, GS-Rb1, which can suppress maternal aggression."
생쥐에서 인삼 조 사포닌과 순수 Rb1,Rg1이 선천성 공격에 대한  급 만성 효과를 연구하였다. 고려인삼 근은  선천성 공격력을 억제 할 수 있는 정신 활성 물질을 가지고 있는데 Rb1이라는 것을 보여준다.
3)"The putative anxiolytic activity of the white and red varieties of ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, was investigated in rats and mice using a number of experimental paradigms of anxiety and compared with that of diazepam. Pilot studies indicated that single-dose administration of ginseng had little to no acute behavioral effects… White and red varieties of ginseng (20 and 50 mg/kg) showed positive results when tested against several paradigms of experimental anxiety… The effects induced by white and red ginseng (50 mg/kg x 5 days) were comparable to those induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg).
백삼과 홍삼의 불안완화에 대한 소문을 쥐와 생쥐에서 몇 개의  실험적인 항 불안 범례를 이용하여 연구하였다. 안내 연구는 인삼의 1회 투여는 급성 행동에 아무 효과가 없고 백삼과 홍삼은 실험 적인 불안의 몇 개 범례에서 긍정적 결과를 보여주었다. 백삼과 홍삼으로 유도된 효과는 (50 mg/kg x 5 days) 디아제팜(1 mg/kg)으로 유도된 효과와 맞먹었다.
4.삶의 질 향상
1)Though the term is controversial, studies have been conducted which show an increase in the patients view of "Quality of Life" after Ginseng usage.
논쟁의 소지는 잇지만 인삼 복용 후 환자들에서 삶의 질이 증가하는 경향을 보여주는 연구가 있다.
2)The aim of this randomized double-blind study involving 625 patients was to compare the quality-of-life parameters in subjects receiving multivitamins plus ginseng with those found in subjects receiving multivitamins alone. The group divided into two taking one capsule per day for 12 weeks… This study has demonstrated that Pharmaton Capsules were more effective than the multivitamin capsules alone in improving the quality-of-life in a population subjected to the stress of high physical and mental activity.
625명의 환자에서 무작위 이중 맹검 실험으로 복합 비타민과 인삼을 같이 투여하고 복합비타민만 투여한 군에 삶의 질 지표를 비교하였다. 2개 군으로 나눠 12주 동안 날마다 1캅셀씩 복용하였다. 이 연구는 높은 육체적 정신적 스트레스를 받는 대중에서 삶의 질을 개선에 파마톤 캅셀이 비타민 단독 투여에 비해 더 효과적임을 보여주었다.
5.약물 중독 및 환경 호르몬에 대한 작용
1)"The study undertook to determine the antagonism of morphine analgesia by the standardized ginseng extract G115 from Panax ginseng… "G115 significantly inhibits the development of morphine-induced tolerance and physical dependence…. It did not, however, antagonize morphine analgesia."
고려인삼 표준화된 추출물인 G115의 모르핀 진통작용에 대한 길항 기전을 연구하였다.G115는 의미 있게 모르핀으로 유도된 내성과 육체적 의존성 발현을 억제하였으나 모르핀 진통작용에 길항하지는 안 했다.

2)Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1, major components of ginseng saponin, "on morphine-induced hyperactivity and conditioned place-preference… Our findings suggest that Rg1, a component of ginseng saponin with appropriate activity, might be a useful agent for prevention and treatment of the adverse effects of morphine.”
Rb1과 Rg1이 모르핀으로 유도된 과민반응과 조건화된 장소 선택에 대한 효과를 알아보기 위해 실험하였다.  우리의 발견으로 는 Rg1이 (적절한 작용을 지닌 인삼 사포닌의 구성 물질) 모르핀 부작용 치료와 예방에 유용한 물질이라 추측되었다. 
3)Ginseng was found to "inhibit the tolerance to and dependence on morphine, and eliminated the suppressive effect of the development of morphine tolerance by coexposure to footshock stress, but not psychological stress… The conditioned place preference of methamphetamine and cocaine was completely blocked by ginseng. These findings provide evidence that ginseng may be useful clinically for the prevention of abuse and dependence of opioids and psychostimulants."
인삼은 모르핀의 의존성과 내약 성을 억제하고 발 충격 스트레스(정신적 스트레스가 아닌)에 의한 모르핀 내약 성 발달 억압 효과를 제거하였다.  히로폰과 코카인늬 조건화된 장소 선택은 인삼에 의해 완전히 차단되었다. 이들 발견은 인삼이 아편과 정신자극제의 남용과 의존성 예방에  임상적으로 유용하다는 증거를 제공해 주었다.
4)Daily repeated administration of cocaine developed reverse tolerance to the ambulation-accelerating effect of cocaine. It was found that ginseng total saponin (GTS) inhibited the development of reverse tolerance…. "These results provide that GTS may be useful for the prevention and therapy of the adverse action of cocaine. It is concluded that the development of reverse tolerance to the ambulation-accelerating effect of cocaine may be associated with the enhanced dopamine receptor sensitivity because both phenomena were blocked by GTS."
날마다 되풀이 하여 코카인을 투여하는 것은 코카인의 보행 가속 효과에 대한 역 내약 성을 발달 시킨다. 인삼 사포닌이 역 내약 성 발달을 억제하는 것으로 밝혀졌다.이들 결과는 인삼 사포닌이 코카인의 역 작용의 치료와 예방에 유용함을 보여준다.  코카인의 보행 가속 효과에 대한 역 내약 성의 발달은 도파민 수용체 민감성을 강화해서 나타나는 것으로 추정된다( 이들 현상은 GTS에 의해 차단 되므로)
5)Dioxins계의 화합물인 TCDD의 독성을 매우 효과적으로 방어해주며 사람과 유사한 실험 동물인 기니픽을 이용한 동물실험에서 다이옥신 노출에 따른 사망 율 감소 및 간,신장,지방 등 장기의 손상 및 기능 저하를 방어해주고 고환의 위축,정자형성 억제 및 운동 력 저하 등 생식독성을 효과적으로 방어해 준다.

 

 

        문헌
1.Brain Res Bull. 1998 Jun;46(3):245-51 
Effects of ginsenosides on Ca2+ channels and membrane capacitance in rat adrenal chromaffin cells. 
Kim HS, Lee JH, Goo YS, Nah SY. 
Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea. hskim@trut.chungbuk.ac.kr 
We investigated the effects of ginseng total saponins (GTS) and five ginsenosides on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and membrane capacitance using rat adrenal chromaffin cells. In this study, cells were voltage-clamped in a whole-cell recording mode and a perforated patch-clamp technique was used. The inward Ca2+ currents (I(Ca)) was elicited by depolarization and the change in cell membrane capacitance (deltaCm) was monitored. The application of GTS (100 microg/ml) induced rapid and reversible inhibition of the Ca2+ current by 38.8 +/- 3.6% (n = 16). To identify the particular single component that seems to be responsible for Ca2+ current inhibition, the effects of five ginsenosides (ginsenoside Rb1, Rc, Re, Rf, and Rg1) on the Ca2+ current were examined. The inhibitions to the Ca2+ current by Rb1, Rc, Re, Rf, and Rg1 were 15.3 +/- 2.2 36.9 +/- 2.4 28.1 +/- 1.9 19.0 +/- 2.5 and 16.3 +/- 1.6% (n = 15), respectively. The order of inhibitory potency (100 microM) was Rc > Re > Rf > Rg1 > Rb1. A software based phase detector technique was used to monitor membrane capacitance change (deltaCm). The application of GTS (100 microg/ml) induced inhibitory effects on deltaCm by 60.8 +/- 9.7% (n = 10). The inhibitions of membrane capacitance by Rb1, Rc, Re, Rf, and Rg1 were 35.3 +/- 5.5 41.8 +/- 7.0 40.5 +/- 5.9 51.2 +/- 7.6 and 35.9 +/- 5.1% (n = 10), respectively. The inhibitory potencies of the ginsenosides on deltaCm were Rf > Rc > Re > Rg1 > Rb1. Therefore, we found that GTS and ginsenosides exerted inhibitory effects on both Ca2+ currents and deltaCm in rat adrenal chromaffin cells. These results suggest that ginseng saponins regulate catecholamine secretion from adrenal chromaffin cells and this regulation could be the cellular basis of antistress effects induced by ginseng. 
PMID: 9667819 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
2.Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Jun;95(2):140-4. 
Proof of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: basic and clinical trials: suppression of adrenal medullary function in vitro by ginseng.
Tachikawa E, Kudo K.Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University. etachika@iwate-med.ac.jp
The root of Panax ginseng C.A. MEYER has been reported to have an anti-stress action. Therefore, the effects of ginseng componentson functions of adrenal medulla, which is one of the most important organs responsive to stress, were investigated in vitro. First, the components of ginseng were mainly divided into two fractions, that is, the saponin-rich and non-saponin fractions. The saponin-rich fraction greatly reduced the secretion of catecholamines from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells stimulated by acetylcholine (ACh), whereas the non-saponin fraction did not affect it at all. The protopanaxatriol-type saponins inhibited the ACh-evoked secretion much more strongly than the protopanaxadiol-type. On the other hand, the oleanane-type saponin, ginsenoside-Ro, had no such effect. Recent reports have demonstrated that the saponins in ginseng are metabolized and absorbed in digestive tracts following oral administration of ginseng. All of the saponin metabolites greatly reduced the ACh-evoked secretion. M4 was the most effective inhibitor among the metabolites. M4 blocked ACh-induced Na(+) influx and ion inward current into the chromaffin cells and into the Xenopus oocytes expressing human alpha3beta4 nicotinic ACh receptors, respectively, suggesting that the saponin metabolites modulate nicotinic ACh receptors followed by the reduction of catecholamine secretion. It is highly possible that these effects of ginsenosides and their metabolites are associated with the anti-stress action of ginseng.
PMID: 15215636 [PubMed - in process 

3..Pharmacol Res. 2006 Jul;54(1):46-9. Epub 2006 Mar 10 
The antistress effect of ginseng total saponin and ginsenoside Rg3 and Rb1 evaluated by brain polyamine level under immobilization stress. 
? Lee SH, Jung BH, Kim SY, Lee EH, Chung BC. 

Bioanalysis and Biotransformation Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650, South Korea; Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, South Korea. 
The present study aims to demonstrate the ability of ginseng total saponin (GTS), ginsenosides Rg3 and Rb1 to reduce brain polyamine levels in immobilization-stressed gerbil mice. A previous study reported that ginsenosides had an anti-stress property. So, we tested the anti-stress effect of ginseng by investigating the brain level of polyamine, a well-known stress stimuli marker. We determined the brain polyamine levels under 30-min immobilization stress in pretreating GTS (100mgkg(-1), oral), ginsenosides Rg3 and Rb1 (10mgkg(-1), oral, respectively). Then, we compared polyamine levels between the non-stressed mouse and the stressed mouse which had taken saline orally to check the placebo effect. Putrescine (PUT) levels were significantly increased (P<0.01) in the stressed condition, but it was reduced in pretreatment of GTS, ginsenosides Rg3 (P<0.01, respectively) and Rb1 (P<0.001) under 30-min immobilization stressed-mouse. However, other polyamine levels did not change regardless of stressed condition or GTS-, ginsenosides Rg3- and Rb1-treated stressed condition. These results mean that only PUT could be a marker for stress and GTS, ginsenosides Rg3 and Rb1 administration lead to an anti-stress effect. Thus, our studies indicate that GTS, ginsenosides Rg3 and Rb1 may play a neuroprotective role in the immobilization-stressed brain. 
PMID: 16530422 [PubMed - in process] 
고정 스트레스에서 인삼의총 사포닌과 Rg3의  항 스트레스 효과를 뇌 polyamine수치로 평가하였다. 
이 연구는 고정 스트레스를 준 gerbil생쥐에서 인삼 총사포닌(GTS)와 Rg3,Rb1이 뇌 polyamine수치를 감소시키는 능력을 보여주기 위함이다. 저번연구에서 진세노사이드가 항 스트레스 성질을 가진 것을 발표하였다.우리는  스트레스 자극 표식자로 잘 알려진 뇌의 polyamine치수를 조사하는 방법으로 인삼의 항 스트레스 효과를 실험하였다. 
우리는 GTS(100mg/kg),Rg3와 Rb1(10mg/kg)을 경구로 전 처리하고 20분간 고정 스트레스하에서 뇌의 polyamine수치를 측정하였다.그 후 우리는 위약으로 생리식역수를 경구 투여한  비 스트레스 생쥐와 스트레스 받은 생쥐사이의 polyamine치수를 비교하였다.Putresine(PUT)치수는 스트레스 받은 조건에서는 의미 있게 증가하였지만  30분간고정 스트레스를 받은 생쥐군에  GTS,Rg3,Rb1를 전 처리한 군에서는 감소하였다.그러나 다른 polyamine치수는 스트레스를 받은 조전이나 스트레스받은 조건에서 GTS,Rg3,Rb1처리 군 모두 변화가 없었다.이들 결과는 단진 PUT만이 GTS,Rg3,Rb1투여가 항 스트레스 효과를 나타내는 표식이라는 것을 의미한다. 따라서 우리의 연구는 GTS,Rg3,Rb1이 고정 스트레스를 받은 뇌에서 신경보호역할을 한다는 것을 보여준다. 

 
4. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988 Jun 10;150(3):319-24.  
Acute and chronic effects of ginseng saponins on maternal aggression in mice.Yoshimura H, Watanabe K, Ogawa N.Department of Pharmacology, Ehime University School of Medicine, Japan. 
The present study investigated the acute and chronic effects of crude ginseng saponin(CGS), pure ginsenoside Rb1 (GS-Rb1) and ginsenoside Rg1 (GS-Rg1) on maternal aggression in mice. Maternal aggression was determined on postpartum days 5 and 7 in female mice that had been housed alone since the end of the 4-day mating period. Acute intraperitoneal administration of CGS (50 and 100 mg/kg) and GS-Rb1 (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) significantly suppressed maternal aggression in a dose-dependent manner, whereas GS-Rg1 was ineffective. As compared with the vehicle-treated group, chronic treatment with CGS(50 mg/kg) and GS-Rb1 (2.5 mg/kg) significantly suppressed maternal aggression without causing motor dysfunction, whereas GS-Rg1 (2.5 mg/kg) showed a tendency to facilitate maternal aggression. These findings indicate that the root of Panax ginseng contains a psychoactive ingredient, GS-Rb1, which can suppress maternal aggression. 
고려인삼 근에는  선천적 공격성을 억제 할 수 있는Rb1이라는  정신활성 성분이 포함 되 있다
 
5.Integr Physiol Behav Sci. 2002 Jul-Sep;37(3):178-87. 
The nootropic properties of ginseng saponin Rb1 are linked to effects on anxiety.Churchill JD, Gerson JL, Hinton KA, Mifek JL, Walter MJ, Winslow CL, Deyo RA.Department of Psychology, Winona State University, MN, USA. churchj@SLU.eduPrevious studies have shown that crude ginseng extracts enhance performance on shock-motivated tasks. Whether such performance enhancements are due to memory-enhancing (nootropic) properties of ginseng, or to other non-specific effects such as an influence on anxiety has not been determined. In the present study, we evaluated both the nootropic and anxiolytic effects of the ginseng saponin Rb1. In the first experiment, 80 five-day-old male chicks received intraperitoneal injections of 0, 0.25, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg Rb1. Performance on a visual discrimination task was evaluated 15 minutes, 24 and 72 hours later. Acquisition of a visual discrimination task was unaffected by drug treatment, but the number of errors was significantly reduced in the 0.25 mg/kg group during retention trials completed 24 and 72 hours after injection. Animals receiving higher dosages showed trends towards enhancement initially, but demonstrated impaired performance when tested 72 hours later. Rb1 hadno effect on response rates or body weight. In the second experiment, 64 five-day-old male chicks received similar injections of Rb1 (0, 0.25, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg) and separation distress was evaluated 15 minutes, 24 and 72 hours later. Rb1 produced a change in separation distress that depended on the dose and environmental condition under which distress was recorded. These data suggest that Rb1 can improve memory for a visual discrimination task and that the nootropic effect may be related to changes in anxiety 
6.Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Feb 15;531(1-3):160-5. Epub 2006 Jan 18. 

Identification of anxiolytic ingredients in ginseng root using the elevated plus-maze test in mice. 
? Carr MN, Bekku N, Yoshimura H. 
Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ehime University School of Medicine, Toon-City, Ehime 791-0295, Japan 

Ginseng root has been widely used for the management of anxiety and emotional instability, but there is little experimental evidence supporting these clinical applications. We pharmacologically identified the anxiolytic components in ginseng root, using the elevated plus-maze test. Male ICR albino mice and the following drugs were used: diazepam (0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg/kg, p.o.); red ginseng powder (300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg, p.o.); crude saponin and non-saponin ginseng fractions (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p., for each preparation); and pure ginsenoside Rb1, Rg1, and Ro (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p., for each preparation). Ginseng powder and crude saponin ginseng fraction significantly increased the frequency and duration of open arm entries. Among the three types of pure ginsenoside, only ginsenoside Rb1 significantly increased both the frequency and duration of open arm entries. Our results clearly indicate that ginsenoside Rb1 is one of the active anxiolytic components of ginseng root. 
PMID: 16413533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
생쥐의 미로 실험을 이용한 인삼 근의 불안완화 성분의 증명 
인삼 근은 불안과 정서 불안의 조절에 널게 사용 되 왔으나 이들 임상적  적용을 지지할 실험적 증거는 없었다.  
우리는 향상된 미로 실험을 통하여 인삼 근의 불안 완화 성분을 약리학적으로 증명하였다. 수컷 ICR albino생쥐와 디아제팜(0.5,1,1.5mg/kg,p.o),홍삼가루(300,600,1200mg/kg,p.o),조 사포닌과 비 사포닌 분획(50,100,200mg/kg,i.p 각각),순수 Rb1,Rg1,개(2.5,5,10mg/kg,i.p 각각) 
인삼 가루와 조 사포닌 분획은 의미 있게 open arm entries의 횟수와 기간을 증가시켰고, 3개의 순수 사포닌 중 단지 Rb1만이 의미 있게 증가시켰다. 결과는 Rb1이 인삼 근의 불안 완화 물질의 하나라는 것을 말해준다. 

                                                                                          
 
 

 

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