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신장

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  • 2019-02-21 10:57:00
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신장
1.신장의 혈류 증가를 통하여 항 신 염 작용을 한다.
2.항 산화 효소를 증가시키며 신장 기능의 저하를 나타내는   지표물질의 수치를 낮춘다.
3.단백 뇨 및   과세포질과 침윤 같은 해부 병태 적 변화를 억제한다.
4.신 독성 물질로부터 신장을 보호한다.

                  문헌
1.Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1991 Feb;97(2):127-34.
[Studies on antinephritic effects of plant components in rats (2): Effects of ginsenosides on original-type anti-GBM nephritis in rats and its mechanismHattori T, Ito M, Suzuki Y.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan.To clarify the antinephritic effects of ginsenosides, we investigated the effects of crude ginsenoside and ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 on original-type anti-GBM nephritis in rats. Crude ginsenoside at 1.0 mg and 5.0 mg/kg, i.p., and ginsenoside Rg1 at 1.0 mg/kg, i.p., prevented urinary protein excretion and elevation of serum cholesterol content, as well as histopathological changes such as hypercellularity and adhesion. 
On the other hand, ginsenoside Rb1 only inhibited the histopathological parameters. In order to clarify the antinephritic mechanisms of ginsenosides on this model, we investigated the effect of ginsenosides on platelet aggregation and renal blood flow. Crude ginsenoside markedly enhanced the renal blood flow. Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibited the platelet aggregation in vivo and enhanced the renal blood flow on the 1st day. These results suggest that crude ginsenoside and Rg1 exert their antinephritic action via increased renal blood flow. 
쥐에 있어 식물성분의 항 신염에 대한 연구( 진성 진세노사이드의 항 신염에 대한 효과와 기전)
진세노사이드의 항 신염 효과를 명확히 하기위해 조 진세노사이드와  진성Rg1,Rb1의 항 GBM신염에 대해 연구하였다. 조 진세노사이드는 1.0mg,5.0mg/kg,i.p,Rg1은 1.0mg/kg i.p는 단백 뇨와 혈청 콜레스테롤 티 상승 및 고 세포질이나 부착 같은 해부 병태학적인 변화를  억제하였다. 한편 Rb1은 단지 해부병태학적 지표만 억제하였다. 진세노사이드의 항 신염 기전을 명확히 하기 위해 우리는 혈액 응고와 신장 혈액 흐름의 효과를 연구하였다. Rg1은 생체 내에서 응고를 억제하고 신장 혈액 흐름을 하루 만에 증가시켰다. 이들 결과는 조 진세노사이드와 Rg1이 신 혈류를 증가시켜 항 염 작용을 한다는 것을 추측 하게 한다
PMID: 1829061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2.Nephron. 1998;78(2):201-6
A study of ginsenoside-Rd in a renal ischemia-reperfusion model.
Yokozawa T, Liu ZW, Dong E.Research Institute for Wakan-Yaku, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sugitani, Japan.
The effect of ginsenoside-Rd in ischemic-reperfused rats was examined. In control rats, blood and renal parameters and the activities of antioxidative enzymes in renal tissue deviated from the normal range, indicating dysfunction of the kidneys. In contrast, when ginsenoside-Rd was given orally for 30 consecutive days prior to ischemia and reperfusion, the activities of the antioxidation enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were higher, while malondialdehyde levels in serum and renal tissue were lower in the treated rats than in the controls. Decreased levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in serum demonstrated a protective action against the renal dysfunction caused by ischemia and recirculation. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rd affected cultured proximal tubule cells subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation, probably by preventing oxygen free radicals from attacking the cell membranes.PMID: 9496738 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Rd를 허혈과 재 관류 전 30일간 전 처리하면 항 산화효소인 과산화 청소 효소, catalase and glutathione peroxidase 는 증가하는 반면 신장기능의 저하를 의미하는 지표물질인 malondialdehyde의 혈중 농도가 떨어지고 urea nitrogen 및 creatine수치가 떨어졌다.
3.Nephron. 1999 Feb;81(2):200-7.
Effect of ginsenoside-Rd in cephaloridine-induced renal disorder.
Yokozawa T, Owada S.Research Institute for Wakan-Yaku, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, Japan.
To determine whether ginsenoside-Rd ameliorates the renal injury induced by cephaloridine, the effect of cephaloridine was investigated in rats given ginsenoside-Rd preceding cephaloridine administration and in control rats given no ginsenoside-Rd. In control rats, blood, renal and urinary parameters and the activities of antioxidative enzymes in renal tissue deviated from the normal range, indicating dysfunction of the kidneys. In contrast, when ginsenoside-Rd was given orally for 30 consecutive days prior to cephaloridine injection, the activities of the antioxidation enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were higher, while malondialdehyde levels in serum and renal tissue were lower in the treated rats than in the controls. The urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in serum were decreased in rats given ginsenoside-Rd. Decreased urine volume, increased urinary osmotic pressure, and decreased urinary levels of glucose, protein, sodium and potassium demonstrated a protective action against the renal dysfunction caused by cephaloridine. In addition, it was demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rd affected cultured proximal tubule cells exposed to cephaloridine.PMID: 9933756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Rd는 cephloridine에 의해 유도된 신 장애에 대해 보호 작용이 있다 
3.Nippon Jinzo Gakkai Shi. 1994 Jan;36(1):13-8.
Inhibitory effects of ginseng on proliferation of cultured mouse mesangial cells.
Yokozawa T, Iwano M, Dohi K, Hattori M, Oura H.Research Institute for Wakan-Yaku, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan.
To evaluate the pharmacological action of ginseng, its effects on the proliferative activity of mesangial cells, which are thought to play an important role in the regulation of renal function, were determined in terms of [3H]thymidine uptake. When the extract was added to the medium of mesangial cell cultures, it suppressed the proliferation of mesangial cells, and similar proliferation-inhibitory activity was found in the total saponin and ginsenoside-Rd fractions, consistent with the renal effects observed in our previous in vivo studies. The inhibition of mesangial cell proliferation by the extract can thus be explained by the action of ginsenoside-Rd.
PMID: 8107304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Rd는 신장 기능조절에 중요한 역할을 하는 사구체 맥관 막 세포의 증식을 억제한다.
4.Nephron. 2001 Dec;89(4):433-8.
Role of ginsenoside-Rd in cisplatin-induced renal injury: special reference to DNA fragmentation.Yokozawa T, Dong E.Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, Japan. yokozawa@ms.toyama-mpu.ac.jpDNA of LLC-PK(1) cells cultured with cisplatin was fragmented to produce low-molecular-weight structures. Agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA revealed a ladder pattern characteristic of apoptosis, indicating the induction of apoptosis by cisplatin. However, the degree of apoptosis was lower in cells cultured with cisplatin in the presence of ginsenoside-Rd, and this was accompanied by suppressed leakage of lactic dehydrogenase into the culturemedium. The ladder pattern was detected on electrophoresis of DNA in renal tissue samples obtained from rats given an intravenous injection of cisplatin. Such DNA fragmentation was less conspicuous in rats given ginsenoside-Rd orally for 30 days prior to cisplatin administration. Significant suppression of the DNA fragmentation was also demonstrated by densitometry, and measurement of urea nitrogen and creatinine in blood also showed a marked decrease in their respective levels in rats administered ginsenoside-Rd. The present findings suggest that ginsenoside-Rd ameliorates cisplatin-induced renal injury, a process in which apoptosis plays a central role, and thereby causes restoration of the renal function. causes restoration of the renal function. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, BaselPMID: 11721162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Rd는 cisplantin으로 유도된 신장장애에 대하여 기능수복작용이 있고 따라서 신 기능 회복을 시킨다.
5. Ren Fail. 2000 Mar;22(2):115-27.
The role of ginsenoside-Rd in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure.
Yokozawa T, Liu ZW.Research Institute for Wakan-Yaku, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sugitani, Japan. yokozawa@ms.toyaxna-mpu.ac.jp
Ginsenoside-Rd has been proved to decrease the severity of renal injury induced by cisplatin, in which proximal urinaferous tubules represent the main site of injury. When ginsenoside-Rd was given orally at a dose of 1 or 5 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 consecutive days prior to cisplatin injection, the activities of the antioxidation enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were higher, while malondialdehyde levels in serum and renal tissue were lower in the treated rats than in the controls. The levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in serum were decreased in rats given ginsenoside-Rd. Decreased urinary levels of glucose, sodium and potassium reflected a protective action against the renal dysfunction caused by cisplatin. In addition, it was demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rd affected cultured proximal tubule cells exposed to cisplatin.
PMID: 10803758 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLIN
6.Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1991 Feb;97(2):127-34.
[Studies on antinephritic effects of plant components in rats (2): Effects of ginsenosides on original-type anti-GBM nephritis in rats and its mechanisms]
[Article in Japanese]Hattori T, Ito M, Suzuki Y.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan.
To clarify the antinephritic effects of ginsenosides, we investigated the effects of crude ginsenoside and ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 on original-type anti-GBM nephritis in rats. Crude ginsenoside at 1.0 mg and 5.0 mg/kg, i.p., and ginsenoside Rg1 at 1.0 mg/kg, i.p., prevented urinary protein excretion and elevation of serum cholesterol content, as well as histopathological changes such as hypercellularity and adhesion.On the other hand, ginsenoside Rb1 only inhibited the histopathological parameters. In order to clarify the antinephritic mechanisms of ginsenosides on this model, we investigated the effect of ginsenosides on platelet aggregation and renal blood flow. Crude ginsenoside markedly enhanced the renal blood flow. Ginsenoside Rg1 inhibited the platelet aggregation in vivo and enhanced the renal blood flow on the 1st day. These results suggest that crude ginsenoside and Rg1 exert their antinephritic action via increased renal blood flow.
PMID: 1829061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
조 Ginsenoside와 Rg1은 신장의 혈액흐름을 증가시켜 신장염 방어 작용을 한다.

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