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발기부전

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  • 2019-02-21 10:57:00
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 발기부전(Electile Dysfunction)
1. 성감, 만족감, 페니스 팽창 및 강직도 조기 발기 감퇴에 효과적이며 당뇨 등 원인질환으로 인한 발기부전에도 효과적이다. 
2.정자의 숫자와 운동성을 증가 시킨다.
1)Saponin extracted from Ginseng is being investigated for it usage and effects on erectile dysfunction. To treat erectiledysfunction and develop a natural drug without complications a total of 90 patients were closely followed using ginseng treatments compared to placebo and other drugs. In the group receiving ginseng, changes in early detumescence and erectile parameters were significantly higher than that of other groups. "As more information is available, possible breakthrough in treatment of erectile dysfunction could be arisen from active saponin extracted from red ginseng, bringing hopes to many sufferers of erectile dysfunction.
"인삼으로부터 추출한 사포닌이 발기부전에 미치는 영향과 용법을 연구 하였다.증상의 악화 없이 천연약제를 발전시키고 발기부전을 치료하기 위해 총 90명의 인삼을 이용하는 환자를   프라세보나 다른 약제와 비교되어 가까이서 관찰 하였다. 인삼을 복용한 군에서 조조발기감퇴의 변화와  발기부전 지표가 다른 군에 비해 의미 있게 높았다. 홍삼에서 추출한 활성사포닌은 발기부전 증을 지닌 많은 고통자에게 희망을 가져다 줄 수 있는 성공 돌파 가능성이 있는 더 많은 정보가 유용하다. 
2)토끼의 해면체를 용량 의존적으로 해면체를 이완시키는데 ,이 작용은 발기의 중요 작용물질인 NO의 방출을 증강시키고 세포 내 칼슘을 차단하는데 기인하는 것 같으며 alpha-adrenergic 차단작용에 의해서도 해면체 평활 근 이완작용이 일어난다.(Choi et al 1997)
3)인삼의 발기 작용은 항 불안작용 및 항 우울 작용, 혈관 확장작용, 및 미세혈관의 순환 개선 등에 의해 일어나는 것 같다(Choi et al 1995)
4). 90명의 사정 발기부전 환자(81명은 신경기인 발기 부전이고 9명은 혈관기인형태의 발기부전환자)를 대상으로 1800mg/day의 홍삼 추출물을 3개월 투여한 투여 한 결과trazodone(25mg/day QD),위약 군에 비해 조루증, 삽입 빈도와 시간, 조조 발기 빈도에서는 변화가 없었으나 성감에서 50%,만족감43.3%, 발기 동안 페니스의 팽창(53.5%),강직 도(50.0%),조기 발기감퇴의 감소(23.3%)가 있었다. 전체적인 치료 효율은 인삼 투여 군에서 60%,다른 그룹에선 30%였고 시청각교육의 자극에 의해 유도된 발기 변화에 확실하게 우수한 결과를 보였다(연세 대 의대 비뇨기과 최 형기 교수 팀)
5)"Experiment on the mating behavior of male albino rats paired with receptive females established that in comparison with control animals, males under the influence of ginseng (a) began ejaculation earlier and repeated the action more often in a 45-minute observation period and (b) deposited more copulation plugs in 10 days. The data suggest that ginseng facilitates the mating behavior of male rats."
사이 좋은 암컷과 짝지어진 albino수컷 쥐의 교미에 대한 실험은대조 군에 비해 인삼의 먹은 수컷은일찍 사정하였고 45분 내에 행동을 되풀이 하였으며 10일안에 더 많은 성교를 하였다 이는 인삼이 수컷 쥐의 교미 행위를 용이하게 한다고 추측된다.
6)A study was conducted to investigate whether or not ginseng saponin components prevent the development of copulatory disorder. "The following constituents of red ginseng powder were administered intraperitoneally once per day throughout the individual housing period: crudeginseng saponins and p.r. ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rg1, and Ro. Chronic treatment with crude ginseng saponins significantly lessened the severity of copulatory disorder in a dose-dependent manner This evidence indicates that ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the ingredients of red ginseng rootthat acts on male copulatory behavior.
"인삼사포닌 성분이 성교장애의 발달을 저지 하는가 아닌가를 조사하는 연구를 하였다. 인삼 조사포닌,Rb1,Rb2,Rg1,Ro를 복강 내로 하루 한번 주입하고 각각 사육하였다. 인삼 조 사포닌의 장기투여는 심한 성교장애를 의미 용량 의존적으로 감소시켰다.Rg1이 수컷 성교장애에 작용하는 홍삼의 성분이라는 증거이다.
7) "It is postulated that cardiovascular protection by GS may be partly mediated by the release of NO, a potent antioxidant, and that the GS-enhanced release of NO from endothelial cells, especially from perivascular nitric oxide may partly account for the aphrodisiac effect of Panax ginseng used in traditional Chinese medicine." 
인삼사포닌(GS)의 심 혈관 방어작용은 NO의 방출을 매개로 일어난다고 가정된다. NO는 강력한 항산화제이며 인삼사포닌은 상피세포로부터 NO를 방출하며 특히 혈관주변으로부터의 NO의 방출은 전통적 동양의학에서고려인삼이 성욕을 촉진하는 것을 부분적으로 설명해준다.
8)당뇨병, 고혈압, 콜레스테롤 수치 이상, 전립선 비대증 등의 원인질환을 지닌 발기부전환자(45명)을 대상으로 한 임상실험에서 홍삼 복용 군(2.7g/일,2개월)이 위약 군에 비해 성기능 개선이 인정 되었다. 
                        문헌
1.Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1998;33(3):184-7.
[Effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on repeated stress-induced sexualdeficiencies in male mice][Article in Chinese]Lian X, Zhang J.Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciecces, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050.The effect of ginsenoside Rb1 has been studied on sexual deficiencies induced by repeated hanging stress. Male mice were stressed by hanging once daily(9:00 am-2:00 pm) for 10 days(1-3 day hung for 2 h, 4-6 day hung for 3 h, 7-9 day hung for 4 h, 10-11 day hung for 5 h). On day 10, they were exposed to female mice treated with estradiol and progesterone and their sexual behaviors (licking, mounting, mating) were assessed at 7:00-9:00 pm. The repeated hanging stress was found to reduce sexual behaviors and decrease plasma testosterone level in mice. Treatments with ginsenoside Rb1(2.5, 5, 10 mg.kg-1, i.p.) 30 min before each stress prevented the repeated stress-induced sexual deficiencies and raised plasma testosterone level. The mechanism of the protective action of ginsenoside Rb1 may be attributed to its action in maintaining normal plasma testosterone level.
Rb1의  반복된 스트레스로 유도된  성욕결핍을 예방하고 혈장 남성호르몬 치를 올린다.Rb1의 성욕 결핍 보호 작용은 혈청 내 testosterone수치의 정상을 유지하는 작용 때문이다

 2.Arch Pharm Res. 2006 Feb;29(2):145-51
Ginsenoside R(e) increases fertile and asthenozoospermic infertile human sperm motility by induction of nitric oxide synthase.


? Zhang H, Zhou QM, Li XD,Xie Y, Duan X, Min FL,Liu B, Yuan ZG. 

Department of Medical Physics, Institute of Modern Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China. zhangh@impcas.ac.cn
We investigated the effects of Ginsenoside R(e) on human sperm motility in fertile and asthenozoospermic infertile individuals in vitro and the mechanism by which the Ginsenosides play their roles. The semen samples were obtained from 10 fertile volunteers and 10 asthenozoospermic infertile patients. Spermatozoa were separated by Percoll and incubated with 0, 1, 10 or 100 microM of Ginsenoside R(e). Total sperm motility and progressive motility were measured by computer-aided sperm analyzer (CASA). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was determined by the 3H-arginine to 3H-citrulline conversion assay, and the NOS protein was examined by the Western blot analysis. The production of sperm nitric oxide (NO) was detected using the Griess reaction. The results showed that Ginsenoside R(e) significantly enhanced both fertile and infertile sperm motility, NOS activity and NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 100 nM), a NO donor, mimicked the effects of Ginsenoside R(e). And pretreatment with a NOS inhibitor N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM) or a NO scavenger N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (LNAC, 1 mM) completely blocked the effects of Ginsenoside R(e). Data suggested that Ginsenoside R(e) is beneficial to sperm motility, and that induction of NOS to increase NO production may be involved in this benefit
Re는 수정 및 무력정자로 인한 불 수정 인간 정자 운동을 NO합성을 유도하여 증가시킨다.
우리는 실험관 내 실험을 통하여 수정 가능한  인간 정자 운동과 무력정자 증으로 수 정 불가한 개인에게서 진세노사이드가 역할을 하는 기전을 통하여  Re의 효과를 연구하였다. 정자 쌤플은 10명의 수정가능한 지원자와 10명의 무력정자로 수정 불가한 환자로부터 제공받았다. 정충은 Percoll로 분류하여 0.1.10.100microM Re와 같이 배양하였다. 총 정자 운동과 진행된 운동은 컴퓨터 정자 분석기(CASA)로 측정하였다.NO합성(NOS)작용은 3H argine과 3Hcitrurine 변환 분석으로 결정하였고 NOS단백질은 Western blot분석으로 실험 하였다.정자 NO의 생성은 Griess 반응으로 측정하였다.결과는 Re가 의미 있게 농도 의존적으로 수정 또는 불 수정 정자 운동, NOS작용과 NO생성을 강화하는 것을 보여준다.NO공여체인 Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 100 nM)은 Re의 효과와 흡사 하였다.그리고 NOS억제제인 N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM) or a NO scavenger N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (LNAC, 1 mM) 의 전 처리는 완벽하게 Re의 작용을 차단하였다. 데이타는 Re가 정자 운동에 유익하고 이 유익성에는 NOS를 유도하여 NO생성을 증가시키는 것이라고 추측하게 한다.
  3.Am J Chin Med. 2001;29(1):155-60.
Effects of Ginsenoside Rb2 and Rc on inferior human sperm motility in vitro.Chen JC, Chen LD, Tsauer W, Tsai CC, Chen BC, Chen YJ.Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, China Medical College, Taichung, Taiwan.The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of two constituents of Panax notoginseng flower extract, Ginsenoside Rb2 and Rc, on human sperm motility and progression in vitro. Semen samples were collected from 20 patients with sperm motility between 20% and 40% of normal. All samples had sperm counts of over 20 million per milliliter, in accordance with the World Health Organization standard. Sperm were separated by a Percoll discontinuous gradient technique, and divided into a Percoll sperm control group, and three Ginsenoside Rb2 experimental groups (0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 mg/ml) and three Ginsenoside Rc experimental groups (0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 mg/ml). The results showed that at concentrations of 0.01 mg/ml and 0.001 mg/ml, Ginsenoside Rc enhanced both sperm motility and sperm progression significantly at the end of the 1st and 2nd hour. However, the three concentrations of Ginsenoside Rb2 did not increase sperm motility at the 1st or 2nd hour, but promoted sperm progression at the 2nd hour, when compared to the Percoll group.PMID: 11321473 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

 


4.Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 May;962:372-7.
Ginseng, sex behavior, and nitric oxide.
Murphy LL, Lee TJ.
Department of Physiology, Southern Illinois University, School of Medicine, Carbondale, Illinois 62901, USA. lmurphy@siumed.edu
In Asia, ginseng is commonly included in herbals used for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Recent studies in laboratory animals have shown that both Asian and American forms of ginseng enhance libido and copulatory performance. These effects of ginseng may not be due to changes in hormone secretion, but to direct effects of ginseng, or its ginsenoside components, on the central nervous system and gonadal tissues. Indeed, there is good evidence that ginsenosides can facilitate penile erection by directly inducing the vasodilatation and relaxation of penile corpus cavernosum. Moreover, the effects of ginseng on the corpus cavernosum appear to be mediated by the release and/or modification of release of nitric oxide from endothelial cells and perivascular nerves. Treatment with American ginseng also affects the central nervous system and has been shown to significantly alter the activity of hypothalamic catecholamines involved in the facilitation of copulatory behavior and hormone secretion. Recent findings that ginseng treatment decreased prolactin secretion also suggested a direct nitric oxide-mediated effect of ginseng at the level of the anterior pituitary. Thus, animal studies lend growing support for the use of ginseng in the treatment of sexual dysfunction and provide increasing evidence for a role of nitric oxide in the mechanism of ginsenoside action.
PMID: 12076988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5.Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1998 Jan-Feb;20(1):59-64.
 Preventive effects of various ginseng saponins on the development of copulatory disorder induced by prolonged individual housing in male mice.Yoshimura H, Kimura N, Sugiura K.Behavioral Pharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ehime University School of Medicine, Japan.Recently, we found that virtually all male mice failed to display copulatory behavior following prolonged individual housing. The present study was conducted to investigate whether or not ginseng saponin components prevent the development of this copulatory disorder. ICR male mice were housed individually for 5 weeks after weaning(젖을 떼다), followed by a 10-min encounter with an estrous female mouse. The following constituents of red ginseng powder were administered intraperitoneally once per day throughout the individual housing period: crude ginseng saponins and pure ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rg1, and Ro. Three elements of copulatory behavior (mounting, intromission and penis licking(핥다)) were determined. Following prolonged individual housing only one mouse in the vehicle-treated group displayed mounting. Chronic treatment with crude ginseng saponins (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly lessened the severity of copulatory disorder in a dose-dependent manner. Ginsenoside Rg1 (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) also resulted in a significantly higher incidence of copulatory behavior as compared to the individually housed vehicle-treated group, whereas ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2 and Ro were ineffective. This evidence indicates that ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the ingredients of red ginseng root that acts on male copulatory behavior.
PMID: 9575484 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Rg1은 수컷 쥐의 성교 행동 위축을 방지하며Rb1,Rb2,Ro는 효과가 없다

 

 

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