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노화

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 항 노화 및 항 산화작용
1.Ca++ 감소를 통하여 항 노화 작용을 한다.
2.항 산화 방어계의 위축과 지방 과산화릉 억제하여 항 노화 작용을 한다.
3.항산화 물질인 SODI의 세포 내 함유량을 높인다
4.항산화 기전은 NO의 합성과 관련 있다.
1)In a study treatment with Rbl and Rgl elicited an obvious decrease of [Ca2+]i content, especially in aged rats. In addition, Rb1 and Rgl significantly stimulated the activity of Na+, K+-ATPase while Rbl inhibited the activity of Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase and In view of the close relationship of [Ca2+]i level with aging, the changes of [Ca2+]i induced by Rbl and Rgl, as shown by our results, might provide an explanation of the mechanisms of their antiaging function." 
Rb1과 Rg1를 처치한 연구에서, 특히 늙은 쥐에게서, Ca++의 명백한 감소를 이끌어내었다Rb1과 Rg1은 Na+,K+ATPase의 활동을 의미 있게 자극한 반면 Rb1은 Ca++,Mg++ATPase의 작용을 억제한다. Ca++와 나이와 밀접한 관계가 있다는 관점에서 볼 때 Rg1과 Rb1에 의해 유도된 Ca++의 변화는 항 노화 작용의 기전을 설명하게 한다.
2)항 산화작용(Antioxidant activity) 
Rb2는 항 산화 효소인SODI(Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase:과산화 기를 물과 산소로 바꾸는 중요한 촉매물질로 항 암 제의 심 독성과 세포독성을 줄이며 종양의 촉진단계와 개시단계를 방해하는 물질))의 세포 함유량을 높인다(Kim et al 1996) SODI는 허혈 성 조직의 손상을 보호하며 파리에서 이 물질의 존재가 많을 때 파리의 평균 수명이 길어진다. Rb1,Rb2와 소 분획 물의 혼합물이 있을 때 3배로 SODI가 증가하였는데 저자는 인삼 사포닌의 수명 연장 작용의 분자학적 기초를 제공하는 것이라고 언급하였다(Kim et al :1996) 

3)Oura등은 흰쥐 암수 각각 군 당 25-30마리를 군으로 하여 고려인삼을 28개월 동안 장기 투여 시 수면 연장 효과가 있음을 밝혔다. 수컷의 경우에는 대조군 대비 약 2배의 효과를 보였으며 암컷의 경우에는 약간 증가하는 경향을 보였다.
               문헌

1. Ginsenoides enhance the transduction of tat-superoxide dismutase into mammalian cells and skin
.Kim DW, Eum WS, Jang SH, Yoon CS, Choi HS, Choi SH, Kim YH, Kim SY, Lee ES, Baek NI, Kwon HY, Choi JH, Choi YC, Kwon OS, Cho SW, Han K, Lee KS, Park J, Choi SY.Division of Life Sciences, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702, Korea.
We previously reported that Tat-Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Tat-SOD), a major antioxidant enzyme, can be directly transduced into mammalian cells and skin [Kwon et al. (2000); Park et al. (2002)]. To enhance the therapeutic potential of Tat-SOD in the treatment of various disorders, we screened a number of natural products for their ability to increase transduction efficiency. Ginsenosides were effective with cultured HeLa cells and enhanced the penetration of Tat-SOD into both the epidermis and the dermis of the subcutaneous layer when sprayed on mice skin. Although their mechanism of action is not fully understood we believe that ginsenosides may be useful cofactors with this antioxidant enzyme in anti-aging cosmetics or as a therapeutic protein in disorders related to reactive-oxygen species.
진세노사이드는 포유동물의 세포와 피부에 tat-과산화 제거효소를 형질 도입을  강화한다 
중요한 항산화효소인 Tat-Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase가  포유동물의 세포와 피부에 직접적으로 형질도입을 증가시킨다는 보고가 있었다(Kwon et al. (2000); Park et al. (2002) Tat-SOD 의 다양한 질환의 치료적 능력을 높이기 위해 형질 도입 효율을 증강 할 수 있는 천연물을 조사하였다. 진세노사이드를  생쥐의 피부에 도포 시 피하 층의 피부와 외피 모두에 Tat-SOD의 침투를 높였고 배양된 HeLa세포네 효과적 이었다 .비록 작용 기전이 충분히 이해되지 않는다 해도 진세노사이드가 진세노사이드가 항 노화 화장품 이나 활성산소가 관계된 장애의 치료적 단백질로 항 산화 효소와 같이 사용 시 유용할 것으로 믿는다.
PMID: 14643691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
 2.J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Apr 23;51(9):2555-8.
In vitro study of the relationship between the structure of ginsenoside and its antioxidative or prooxidative(산화 촉진) activity in free radical induced hemolysis of human erythrocytes.Liu ZQ, Luo XY, Liu GZ, Chen YP, Wang ZC, Sun YX.Department of Organic Chemistry and Center for Teaching, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, No. 119 Jiefang Road, Changchun 130023, China. zaiqun-liu@mail,jlu.edu.cnGinsenoside, the major active component in Panax ginseng, which has been used intraditional Chinese medicine, contains a series of derivatives of the triterpene dammarane being attached by some sugar moieties. To clarify the relationship between the structure of ginsenoside and its properties, 11 individual ginsenosides, along with the central structures of ginsenoside, protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol, are used in 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH) induced hemolysis of human erythrocytes, a good experimental model to research free radical induced membrane damage and to evaluate the antioxidative or prooxidative activities of various antioxidants conveniently.It is found that the central structures of ginsenosides, either protopanaxadiol or protopanaxatriol, play a prooxidative role in AAPH-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes. As to the individual ginsenoside, if there are no sugar moieties attached to the 20-position of the triterpene dammarane, the ginsenoside acts as a prooxidant, that is, Rg3, Rh2, and Rg2. A glucose attached to the 6-position instead of the 20-position sugar moieties can make the ginsenoside an antioxidant, that is, Rh1. The antioxidants among ginsenosides follow two different mechanisms that can be expressed mathematically by the Boltzmann equation, that is, Rc and Rb1, and a polynomial equation, that is, Re, Rd, R1, Rg1, Rb3, and Rh1. 
The orders of antioxidative ability are Rc > Rb1 a nd Re > Rd > R1 > Rg1 > Rb3 > Rh1, respectively.
 
인간 적혈구의 용혈로부터 유도된 자유기에 대한 진세노사이드의 구조와 항 산화 또는 산하촉진관련에 대한 실험관 내 연구
전통적인 동양의학에서 사용되온 고려인삼의 주요 활성 성분인 진세노사이드는 당 일부가 붙은 triterpene dammarane의 유도체 시리즈를 지녔다. 진세노사이드의 구조와 그 성질사이의 관계를 명확히 하기위해 중앙 구조가 PPD와 PPT인 11개의 개개의  진세노사이드를 인간 적혈구의 용혈로 유도된 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH)에 사용하였다(전통적으로 다양한 항 산화나 산화촉진을 평가하고세포막 손상으로 유도된 자유기를 연구하기 위한 좋은 실험 모델)진세노사이드의 중앙구조가 PPD또는 PPT이던간에 적혈구의 용혈로 유도된 AAPH에서 산화촉진 역할을 하는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 개개 진세노사이드에 있어서도 triterpene dammarane의 20위치에 당이 없어도 산화 촉진 물질로 작용했다. (Rg3,Rh2,Rg2) 20위치가 아닌 6우치에 포도당이 붙은 진세노사이드는 은 항 산화역활을 했다(Rh1), 진세노사이드 중 항산화작용은 the Boltzmann평균에 의해 수학적으로 표현될 수 잇는 두 개의 다른 기전은 Rc,Rb1과 다항식 평균 즉 Re, Rd, R1, Rg1, Rb3, and Rh1.이다.항 산화 순서는 Rc > Rb1 a nd Re > Rd > R1 > Rg1 > Rb3 > Rh1이다
PMID: 12696936 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
3. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Aug 15;1572(1):58-66.
Can ginsenosides protect human erythrocytes against free-radical-induced hemolysis?Liu ZQ, Luo XY, Sun YX, Chen YP, Wang ZC.Department of Organic Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, China. zaiqun-liu@mail.jlu.edu.cnMany studies have focused on the free-radical-initiated peroxidation ofmembrane lipid, which is associated with a variety of pathological events. Panax ginseng is used in traditional Chinese medicine to enhance stamina and capacity to deal with fatigue and physical stress. Many reports have been devoted to the effects of ginsenosides, the major active components in P. ginseng, on the lipid metabolism, immune function and cardiovascular system. The results, however, are usually contradictory since the usage of mixture of ginsenosides cannot identify the function of every individual ginsenosideson the experimental system. On the other hand, every individual ginsenosides is not compared under the same experimental condition. These facts motivate us to evaluate the antioxidant effect of various individual ginsenosides on the experimental system offree-radical-initiated peroxidation: the hemolysis of human erythrocyte induced thermally by water-soluble initiator, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride) (AAPH). The inhibitory concentration of 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of AAPH-induced hemolysis of the erythrocyte has been studied firstly and found that the order of IC(50) is Rb3 - Rb1<<Rg2<Re<Rg1 - Rc<Rh1<R1. Rb1, Rc and Rg2, as antioxidants, can prolong the lag time of hemolysis. 
Contrarily, Rg3, Rd and Rh1, together with high concentration of Rb3, Rg1 and Rh2, function as prooxidants to accelerate AAPH-induced hemolysis. The addition of Re does not influence the lag time of hemolysis. The R1 with the concentration ranging from 10 to 20 microM decreases the lag time of hemolysis. These results suggest that there is a mutual interaction that existed in the molecule of ginsenosides since the difference of the structure of ginsenosides is only due to the connective position and type of sugar moieties to the ring of a triterpene dammarane. Moreover, thesynergistic antioxidative properties of various individual ginsenosides with alpha-tocopherol (TOH) are also discussed, and it was found that the order of synergistic antioxidative properties with TOH is Rb1>Rc>Re>Rh1>R1>Rg2>Rb3. Rg3, Rd and Rh2, however,act as synergistic prooxidants in the above experimental system. Rg1 does not show any synergistic antioxidative property. Although the antioxidative and prooxidative mechanism of various ginsenosides with or without TOH in AAPH-induced hemolysis of human erythrocytes will be further studied in detail, this information may be useful in the clinical usage of ginsenosides.
진세노사이드는 자유기로 유도된 용혈에 대항하여 인간 적혈구를 보호 할 수 있는가?
다양한 병태학적인 질환에 관련이 있다고 보이는 세포 지질의 자유기로 촉발된 과산화에 많은 연구가 초점이 맞춰졌었다. 고려인삼은 전통적인 동양의학에서 정력을 증강하고 피로나 육체적 스트레스를 없애는데 사용되어 왔다.  고려인삼의 주요 활성 성분인 진세노사이드가 지질 대사,면역 기능,심혈관계에 대한 효과를 충실히 보여주는 많은 연구가 행해졌다. 그러나 진세노사이드의 혼합물의 사용은 개개 진세노사이드의 기능를 실험 조건에서 증명 할 수 없으므로 결과는 항상 상반 되었다. 한편 개개 진세노사이드는 동일 실험 조건에서 비교되지 못하였다. 이러한 사실들이 우리로 하여금 자유기로 촉발된 과산화(수용성 촉발인자 , 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane hydrochloride에 의해 유도된 인간 적혈구의 용혈) 실험 조건에서 다양한 진세노사이드 개개의 항 산화 효과를 평가하게 하였다. AAPH로 유도된 적혈구의 용혈의  50% 억제농도(IC50)를 처음으로 연구하였고 IC 50의 순서는 Rb3 - Rb1<<Rg2<Re<Rg1 - Rc<Rh1<R1이고 Rb1, Rc and Rg2,는 용혈 지연시간을 늘렸다 반대로 Rg3,Rd와 Rh1,고농도의 Rb,Rh2는 산화촉진기능으로 AAPH로 유도된 용혈을 촉진하였다.Re의 첨가는용혈ㅇ의 지연시간에 영향을 미치지 않았고 R1은 10에서 20 microM에서 용혈의 지연 시간을 감소시켰다.이 결과는 단지 triterpene dammarane에 당의 형태와 위치만 다른  진세노사이드의 구조로 볼 때  진세노사이드의  분자에 따라 상호 작용이 있다고 추측된다. 나아가 alpha-tocopherol (TOH)과 다양한 개개 진세노사이드와의 상승적인 항 산화성질을 조사했는데 순서는 Rb1>Rc>Re>Rh1>R1>Rg2>Rb3.,이었고 Rg3와 Rd,Rh2는 위의 실험 ㅈ건에서 상승적인 산화촉ㅈㄴ작용을 보여주었다. Rg1은 상승적인 항산화작용을 보여주지 못했다. 비록  AAPH로 유도된 인간 적혈구 용해 모델에서 다양한 진세노사이드와 TOH를  같이 또는 단독으로 사용시 항 산화나 과산화 촉진 작용 기전은 다음에 자세히 연구 되겠지만 이 정보는  진세노사이드 사용이  임상적으로 유용할 것이다. 

 


4.Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jul 1;54(1):1-8.  

Panax ginseng pharmacology: a nitric oxide link?
Gillis CN.
Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, U.S.A. norman.gillis@yale.edu
Panax ginseng is used in traditional Chinese medicine to enhance stamina and capacity to cope with fatigue and physical stress. Major active components are the ginsenosides, which are mainly triterpenoid dammarane derivatives. The mechanisms of ginseng actions remain unclear, although there is an extensive literature that deals with effects on the CNS (memory, learning, and behavior), neuroendocrine function, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, immune function, and the cardiovascular system. Reports are often contradictory, perhaps because the ginsenoside content of ginseng root or root extracts can differ, depending on the method of extraction, subsequent treatment, or even the season of its collection. Therefore, use of standardized, authentic ginseng root both in research and by the public is to be advocated. Several recent studies have suggested that the antioxidant and organ-protective actions of ginseng are linked to enhanced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in endothelium of lung, heart, and kidney and in the corpus cavernosum. Enhanced NO synthesis thus could contribute to ginseng-associated vasodilatation and perhaps also to an aphrodisiac action of the root. Ginseng is sold in the U.S. as a food additive and thus need not meet specific safety and efficacy requirements of the Food and Drug Administration. Currently, such sales amount to over $300 million annually. As public use of ginseng continues to grow, it is important for this industry and Federal regulatory authorities to encourage efforts to study the efficacy of ginseng in humans by means of appropriately designed double-blind clinical studies.
PMID: 9296344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
인삼의 항 산화작용과 장기 보호작용은 해면체,신장,심장,폐의 내피세포에서 NO를 합성하는 작용과 관련이 있으며  이는 혈관확장작용과 최음 작용과도 관련이 있다.
5.J Biol Chem. 1996 Oct 4;271(40):24539-43.
Transcriptional activation of the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene through the AP2 site by ginsenoside Rb2 extracted from a medicinal plant, Panax ginseng.
Kim YH, Park KH, Rho HM.Department of Molecular Biology and Research Center for Cell Differentiation, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea.
We report here that the ginseng saponins induce the transcription of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1), which is one of the major antioxidant enzymes. Total saponins and panaxatriol did not elevate the level of SOD1, but panaxadiol significantly increased SOD1. Among the panaxadiol fractions, ginsenoside Rb2 was a more specific and more remarkable inducer of the SOD1 gene than ginsenoside Rb1. Deletionanalyses of the SOD1 promoter revealed that the proximal promoter is responsible for this induction. Mobility shift assays with cis-elements in the proximal promoter region showed that specific binding of the AP2 transcription factor was significantly increased by treatment with ginsenoside Rb2. Mutations of the AP2 binding sites in the heterologous promoter and natural context systems abolished the transcriptional activation by ginsenoside Rb2. These results suggest that the SOD1 gene was greatly activated by ginsenoside Rb2 through transcription factor AP2 binding sites and its induction.PMID: 8798715 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PPD계열만이SOD1를 의미 있게 증강시키며 그 중에서 Rb2의 작용이 가장 강하다
6.Chin Med J (Engl). 1995 Jul;108(7):544-7.
Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 on synaptosomal free calcium level, ATPase and calmodulin in rat hippocampus.Liu M, Zhang J.Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing.
Calcium homeostasis in synaptosomes is altered during aging. The intrasynaptomal free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was determined in 3- and 24-month-old rats treated with or without Rb1 and Rg1. As expected, the [Ca2+]i level increased with age. Treatment with Rbl and Rgl elicited an obvious decrease of [Ca2+]i content, especially in aged rates. In addition, Rb1 and Rgl significantly stimulated the activity of Na+, K+-ATPase while Rbl inhibited the activity of Ca2+, Mg2+-ATPase and calmodulin. In view of the close relationship of [Ca2+]i level with aging, the changes of [Ca2+]i induced by Rbl and Rgl, as shown by our results, might provide an explanation of the mechanisms of their antiaging function.
7. Chin Med J (Engl). 1997 Jul;110(7):535-9. 
Inhibition of apoptosis by ginsenoside Rg1 in cultured cortical neurons.Li J, Zhang J.Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.OBJECTIVE: To examine the action of ginsenoside Rg1 on the prevention of apoptosis in cultured cortical neurons. METHODS Serum-deprivation was used as a model of apoptosis in cultured cortical neurons. Trypan blue exclusion test was set to examine cell viability. Lactate dehydrogenase release assay was used to investigate neuroninjury. Two tests were performed for identification of apoptosis: fluorescence microscopy of cells stained with Hoechst 33 342 and Propidium Iodide; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) electrophoresis on agarose gel. RESULTS: Rg1 increased the neuron viability, lessened the release of LDH, reduced the morphological changes of nuclei, and decreased the cleavage of DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Rg1 can inhibit apoptosis of cultured cortical neurons induced by serum withdrawal. This action of Rg1 is concentration-dependent. The finding may give a clue to elucidate the antiaging activity of Rg1.PMID: 9594212 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Rg1은 혈청 투여중지로 유도된  배양된 피질신경세포의 자가 사멸을 방지하며 이는 항 노화작용을 분명히 말해주는 것이다. 

 


PMID: 12204333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 


8.J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Jan;56(1):107-13.
Ginsenoside-Rd attenuates oxidative damage related to aging in senescence-accelerated mice.

? Yokozawa T, Satoh A, Cho EJ. 

Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan. yokozawa@ms.toyama-mpu.ac.jp
Among the various theories of the aging process, the free radical theory, which proposes that deleterious actions of free radicals are responsible for the functional deterioration associated with aging, has received widespread attention. The theory suggests that enhancement of the antioxidative defence system to attenuate free-radical-induced damage will counteract the aging process. We used senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) to investigate the relationship between aging and the antioxidative defence system and evaluated the effects of ginsenoside-Rd, the saponin from ginseng, by measuring antioxidative defence system parameters, including the glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) redox status, antioxidative enzyme activity and level of lipid peroxidation. SAM at 11 months of age (old SAM) showed a significantly lower hepatic GSH/GSSG ratio, due to decreased GSH and increased GSSG levels, than SAM at 5 weeks of age (young SAM). 

However, the administration of ginsenoside-Rd at a dose of 1 or 5 mg kg(-1) daily for 30 days to 10-month-old SAM significantly increased GSH, but decreased GSSG, resulting in elevation of the GSH/GSSG ratio. In addition, ginsenoside-Rd increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione reductase that were both significantly lower in old SAM than in young SAM. This suggests that ginsenoside-Rd could play a crucial role in enhancing the defence system through regulation of the GSH/GSSG redox status. Moreover, decreases in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity in old SAM compared with young SAM were also revealed, indicating that the aging process resulted in suppression of the antioxidative defence system. However, ginsenoside-Rd did not affect SOD and catalase activity. As catalase is localized in peroxisome granules and GSH-Px is present in the cytoplasm and mitochondrial matrix, the site of ginsenoside-Rd action may be the cytoplasm and mitochondrial matrix. Furthermore, the serum and liver malondialdehyde levels, indicators of lipid peroxidation, were elevated with aging, while ginsenoside-Rd inhibited lipid peroxidation. This study indicates that the aging process leads to suppression of the antioxidative defence system and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, while ginsenoside-Rd attenuates the oxidative damage, which may be responsible for the intervention of GSH/GSSG redox status.
PMID: 14980007 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
노화가 가속화된 생쥐에서 노화와 관련된 산화 적 손상을 Rd는 감소시킨다.
노화진행의 다양한 이론 중 자유기 이론(노화로 인한 기능 저하는 자유기의 유독한 작용 때문이다)은 넓은 지지를 받았다. 이 이론은 자유기로 유도된 손상에 대한  항 산화 방어계의 강화는 노화 진행에 반대 작용을 할 것이라 추측된다. 우리는 노화와 항산화 방어 계사이의 관계를 연구하기 위해 노화가 가속화된 생쥐(SAM)을 이용하고  항 산화 방어계 지표를 측정하여.(glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) redox status,항산화 효소 작용과 지방 과산화) Rd의 효과를 평가하였다. 11개월 된 늙은 SAM에서  간의GSH/GSSG  비율은 5주된 젊은 SAMDP 비해  의미 있게 낮아졌다.(GSH의 감소와 GSSG의 증가)
그러나  1또는 5mg/kg을 날마다 30일간 투여한 10 개월 늙은 SAM에서는 GSH는 증가하고 GSSG는 감소하여GSH/GSSG비율을 올리는 결과를 보였다. 나아가 Rd는 글루타치온 과산화 효소(GSH-Px)와 글루타치온 환원효의 작용을 증가시켰다( 젊은 SAM보다 늙은 SAM에서 의미 있게 낮다) 이것은 Rd가 GSH/GSSG산화환원 상태를 조절하여 방어 계를 강화하는데 결정 적 역할을 한다고 추측된다. 더구나  젊은 SAM에 비해 늙은 SAM에서는 MS SOD와 카탈라아제 작용의 감소가 보이는데 이는 노화 과정이 항 산화 방어 계의 위축임을 보여준다. 그러나 Rd는 SOD나 카탈라아제 작용에 영향이 없었다. 카탈라아제는 peroxisome 과립에 있고 GSH-Px은 세포질과 미토콘드리아 간질(matrix)에 있고 Rd 작용 위치는 세포질과 미토콘드리아 간질이기 때문이다. 나아가 혈청과 간의 지질 과산화의 지표물질인 malondialdehyde 수준는 나이가 가속화 될수록  올라가는데 Rd는 지방 과산화를 억제하였다. 이 연구는 노화 과정은 항 산화 방어 계의 위축 및 지질 과산화 생성의 축적을 유발 하는데 Rd는  GSH/GSSG 의 산화 환원 상태를 중재하여 산화 적 손상을 감소시킨다.

 Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Feb 27;532(3):201-7. Epub 2006 Feb 21
9.Antioxidant effects of ginsenoside Re in cardiomyocytes.

? Xie JT, Shao ZH, Vanden Hoek TL, Chang WT, Li J, Mehendale S, Wang CZ, Hsu CW, Becker LB, Yin JJ, Yuan CS. 

Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
We have previously demonstrated that American ginseng berry extract exhibited significant protection against oxidant-mediated injury in cardiomyocytes. To extend this work, we sought to investigate the antioxidant effects of Re, a protopanaxatriols-type and single chemical integrant present in American ginseng berry extract, using the same chick cardiomyocyte model of oxidant injury as well as ESR spectroscopy in a cell-free chemical system. In cells exposed to 2 h of H2O2 (0.5 mM), pretreatment with Re (0.05, 0.1, or 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h) significantly attenuated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence by 51% (from 1345+/-67 to 658+/-46 a.u., P<0.001), and remarkably reduced cell death (from 51.5+/-3.0% to 11.8+/-1.5%, P<0.001, compared to the control). Similar results were also observed in cells exposed to antimycin A (100 microM), a mitochondrial electron transport chain site III inhibitor which increases endogenous oxidative stress. In the ESR study, however, Re failed to reduce the formation of the superoxide/DMPO adduct and DPPH radicals. These results suggest that ginsenoside Re functions as an antioxidant, protecting cardiomyocytes from oxidant injury induced by both exogenous and endogenous oxidants, and that its protective effects may be mostly attributed to scavenging H2O2 and hydroxyl radicals.
PMID: 16497296 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
심근세포에서 Re의 항 산화 효과
우리는 전에 미국 삼 열매 추출물이  심근세포에서 산화로 매개된 손상에 의미 있게 보호하는 것을 보여주었다. 이 작업을 넓혀 우리는  미국 삼 열매 추출물에 존재하는  ppt계의 단일 화학 성분인 Re의 항 산화 효과를 산화로 손상된 병아리 심근세포모델과 세포 자유 화학계에서 ESR 광 분석으로  연구하였다. Re (0.05, 0.1, or 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h)로 전 처리하고 2 시간동안  H2O2(0.5mM)로 노출시킨 세포에서 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence를 51%(from 1345+/-67 to 658+/-46 a.u., P<0.001)로 의미 있게 감소시켰고 현저하게 세포 사멸을 감소시켰다(from 51.5+/-3.0% to 11.8+/-1.5%, P<0.001, compared to the control) 내인 성 산화 스트레스를 일으키는  미토콘드리아 전자 전달 체인 III부위 억제제인 antimycin A (100 microM)에 노출 시에도 유사한 결과가 관찰되었다.ERS연구에서는 Re는 과산화물/DMPO 부가 물과 DPPH반응기의 형성을 감소시키지 못 했다.이 결과는  Re의 항 산화 기능(심근세포를 내외인성 산화물로부터 야기된 산화 적 손상으로부터 보호하는)과 보호 효과는 아마도 대부분 H2O2와 hydroxyl 반응기를 청소하는데 기인하는 것이라 추측 하게한다. 
10.Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005 Feb;26(2):143-9
Anti-amnestic and anti-aging effects of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 and its mechanism of action.

? Cheng Y, Shen LH, Zhang JT. 

Institute of Materia Medica, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050, China.
In the present paper, we overview the discovery of new biological activities induced by ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 and discuss possible mechanisms of action. Both compounds could increase neural plasticity in efficacy and structure; especially Rg1, as one small molecular drug, can increase proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells in dentate gyrus of hippocampus of normal adult mice and global ischemia model in gerbils. This finding has great value for treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders which is characterized by neurons loss. Increase of expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor, Bcl-2 and antioxidant enzyme, enhanced new synapse formation, inhibition of apoptosis and calcium overload are also important neuron protective factors. Rg1 and Rb1 have common effects, but there are some differences in pharmacology and mechanism. These differences may attribute to their different chemical structure. Rg1 is panaxtriol with two sugars, while Rb1 is panaxtriol with four sugars.
PMID: 15663889 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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