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남여 호르몬

  • 관리자 (sinbio)
  • 2019-02-21 10:58:00
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호르몬에 대한 작용(Hormones/Hormonal Effects)
1.여성과 남성 호르몬에 영향이 있는 LH호르몬 분비를 증가시킨다.
2.혈청 남성 호르몬 치를 높인다.
3.여성 호르몬 양 작용이 있으며 picoMolar에서 작용한다.


1.It was reported in one study that participants who received 3.0 grams of Panax ginseng a day showed hormonal changes while lower doses had little or no effect. In another study mice who were given ginsenosides and deer antler developed increased secretion of Luteinizing hormone(LH). LH influences menstruation in women, and also stimulates testosterone activity in men. 하루에 3g의 고려인삼을 복용한 지원자들에게서 호르몬적인 변화를 보였다는 보고가 있다.진세노사이드를 먹인 생쥐와 사슴에서 LH호르몬의 분비가 증가하였다는 다른 연구가 있다. LH호르몬은 여자에게서 생리에 영향을 미치며 남자에게서는 남성 호르몬을 자극한다.
2."Ginseng was associated with a significant increase in serum hormones (testosterone, dihydroxytestosterone, follitropin, and lutropin) and in sperm numbers and motilityin 46 men with oligospermia. "Sixty-six patients have been treated with Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer extractUse of Panax ginseng extract showed an increase in spermatozoa number/ml and progressive oscillating motility, an increase in plasma total and free testosterone, DHT, FSH and LH levels, but a decrease in mean PRL. It is suggested that ginsenosides may have an effect at different levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis."
인삼은 혈청 호르몬(남성 호르몬 dihydroxytestosterone, follitropin, and lutropin)과  경자 결핍을 지닌 46명의 남자에서 정자 수와 수명의 현저한 증가와 관련 있다고 보인다. 66명의 환자를 고려인삼 추출물을 투여하였다. 고려인삼의 사용은 정자 수와 요동수명을 증가시키며 혈장 내 총/유리 남성호르몬,DHT,FSH,LH수치를 높이나 평균 PRL를 낮춘다. 이것은 진세노사이드가 시상하부- 뇌하수체-고환에 각기 다른 영향을 지녔다고 보인다.
 3.."Rats that received 5% ginseng experienced a significant increase in blood testosterone level (rho less than 0.001). Prostate weight in the treated animals was significantly reduced as compared to the control animals. 
5%의 인삼을 투여한 쥐들은 혈 중 남성 호르몬 수치가 현저히 증가한다. 전립선 무게는 대조군에 비해 현저히 감소한다.

4.중추신경을 매개해서 고환 내 남성호르몬의 합성 및 배출을 자극하고 뇌하수체
 에서 gonadotrophin의 방출을 촉진한다(Yamamoto et al 1977) 

                  문헌

1. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003 Dec 1;66(11):2213-21.
In vitro inhibition of adrenal catecholamine secretion by steroidal metabolites of ginseng saponins.
Tachikawa E, Kudo K, Hasegawa H, Kashimoto T, Sasaki K, Miyazaki M, Taira H, Lindstrom JM.
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Uchimaru 19-1, Morioka 020-8505, Japan. etachika@iwate-med.ac.jpWe reported previously that the protopanaxatriol saponins in Panax ginseng greatly reduce the secretion of catecholamines from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells stimulated by acetylcholine (ACh). However, protopanaxadiol saponins showed only slight inhibitory effects. Recent studies have demonstrated that oligosaccharides connected to the hydroxyl groups of the aglycone in ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) are in turn hydrolyzed in the digestive tract and absorbed into the circulation following oral administration of ginseng. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of the major ginsenoside metabolites (M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M11, and M12) on catecholamine secretion. All of these metabolites were shown to be potent inhibitors of ACh-evoked secretion, and M4 was the most effective. M4 blocked not only the ACh-induced Na(+) influx into the chromaffin cells but also the ACh-induced inward current into Xenopus oocytes expressing human alpha 3 beta 4 neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors. M4 reduced the secretion induced by high K(+), an activator of voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels, to a much lesser extent than that evoked by ACh. M1, M2, M3, M5, and M12 are protopanaxadiol saponin-derived metabolites. Therefore, these results imply that the protopanaxadiol saponins are prodrugs, and they show more potent inhibitory activity following metabolism in the digestive tract. The results further suggest that the metabolites act on nicotinic ACh receptors, blocking Na(+) influx through the receptors, and consequently reduce the catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. The inhibitory effect of ginsenoside metabolites is probably one of the mechanisms of action responsible for the pharmacological effects of ginseng.
PMID: 14609746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

2.Biochem Pharmacol. 2003 Dec 1;66(11):2213-21.
In vitro inhibition of adrenal catecholamine secretion by steroidal metabolites of ginseng saponins.
Tachikawa E, Kudo K, Hasegawa H, Kashimoto T, Sasaki K, Miyazaki M, Taira H, Lindstrom JM.
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Uchimaru 19-1, Morioka 020-8505, Japan. etachika@iwate-med.ac.jp
We reported previously that the protopanaxatriol saponins in Panax ginseng greatly reduce the secretion of catecholamines from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells stimulated by acetylcholine (ACh). However, protopanaxadiol saponins showed only slight inhibitory effects. Recent studies have demonstrated that oligosaccharides connected to the hydroxyl groups of the aglycone in ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) are in turn hydrolyzed in the digestive tract and absorbed into the circulation following oral administration of ginseng. Therefore, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of the major ginsenoside metabolites (M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M11, and M12) on catecholamine secretion. All of these metabolites were shown to be potent inhibitors of ACh-evoked secretion,and M4 was the most effective. M4 blocked not only the ACh-induced Na(+) influx into the chromaffin cells but also the ACh-induced inward current into Xenopus oocytes expressing human alpha 3 beta 4 neuronal nicotinic ACh receptors. M4 reduced the secretion induced by high K(+), an activator of voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels, to a much lesser extent than that evoked by ACh. M1, M2, M3, M5, and M12 are protopanaxadiol saponin-derived metabolites. Therefore, these results imply that the protopanaxadiol saponins are prodrugs, and they show more potent inhibitory activity following metabolism in the digestive tract. The results further suggest that the metabolites act on nicotinic ACh receptors, blocking Na(+) influx through the receptors, and consequently reduce the catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.The inhibitory effect of ginsenoside metabolites is probably one of the mechanisms of action responsible for the pharmacological effects of ginseng.
PMID: 14609746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLIN

3.Chin J Physiol. 2003 Mar 31;46(1):1-7.
Stimulation of the secretion of luteinizing hormone by ginsenoside-Rb1 in male rats.
Tsai SC, Chiao YC, Lu CC, Wang PS.CentralLaboratory, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. sctsai@ms2.url.com.tw
Ginsenoside-Rb1 is one of the pharmacologically active components of ginseng, the dry root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine. Ginseng enhanced mounting behaviour of male rats and increased sperm counts in rabbit testes. Some experimental results suggested no sex hormone-like function in ginseng but probably gonadotropin-like action. The present study was to explore the effect of ginsenoside-Rb1 on the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) both in vivo and in vitro.Male rats were orchidectomized (Orch) for 2 weeks or subjected to swim training for 1 week before catheterization via the right jugular vein. They were intravenously injected with ginsenoside-Rb1 (10 microg/kg) or saline at 15 min prior to a challenge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or 10 min-swim. Blood samples were collected at several time intervals following intravenous injectionof ginsenoside-Rb1. In the in vitro experiment, male rats were decapitated and their anterior pituitary gland (APs) were either bisceted or enzymatically dispersed. The hemi-APs were preincubated with Locke's medium at 37 degrees C for 90 min and then incubated with Locke's medium containing ginsenoside-Rb1 (10(-7) - 10(-4) M) for 30 min. The dispersed AP cells (1 x 1(5) cells per well) were primed with dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 10(-8) M) for 3 days, and then challenged with ginsenoside-Rbl (10(-6) and 10(-5) M, n = 8) for 3 h. The concentrations of LH or testosterone in samples were measured by radioimmunoassays. Administration of ginsenoside-Rb1 did not alter the levels of plasma LH in both intact and Orch rats but significantly increased plasma LH concentration at the termination of the 10 min swimming exercise. Administration of ginsenoside-Rb1 resulted in a lower testosterone response to GnRH challenge or swimming exercise as compared with saline-treated rats. Ginsenoside-Rb1 dose-dependently increased the release of LH from both hemi-AP tissues and the DHT-primed dispersed AP cells in vitro. These results suggest that ginsenoside-Rb1 increases LH secretion by acting directly on rat AP cell
4.Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Nov;26(11):1574-80.
Modulating effects of korean ginseng saponins on ovarian function in immature rats.
Yu WJ, Lee BJ, Nam SY, Yang DC, Yun YW.College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Republic of Korea.
The modulating effects of Korean ginseng saponins on ovarian functions were investigated in immature rats superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). A single dose of 1 mg (0.1 ml/head) of Korean ginseng total saponin (GTS), Korean ginseng protopanaxatriol saponin (GPT), Korean ginseng protopanaxadiol saponin (GPD), or ginsenoside-Rb1 (Gin-Rb1) was intravenously injected via jugular vein catheter three times at 1 h (early follicular phase), 25 h (middle follicular phase), and 50 h (late follicular phase) after 30 IU PMSG administration. GPD and Gin-Rb1 significantly suppressed excessive ovulatory response caused by PMSG (p<0.05). All Korean ginseng saponins significantly improved oocyte quality by decreasing the proportion of abnormal oocytes (p<0.05). Gin-Rb1 significantly decreased preovulatory serum levels of androgens and 17beta-estradiol, while GPD increased preovulatory serum progesterone level (p<0.05). GPD significantly the increased postovulatory serum progesterone level (p<0.05). These results provide strong evidence that Korean ginseng saponins have a curative effect on ovarian dysfunction caused by excessive stimulation with PMSG.
5.Estrogen-Like Activity of Ginsenoside Rg1 Derived from Panax notoginseng 
Robbie Y. K. Chan, Wen-Fang Chen, Aling Dong, Dean Guo and Man-Sau Wong
The Open Laboratory of Chirotechnology, Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (R.Y.K.C., W.-F.C., M.-S.W.), Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples Republic of China; and School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University (A.D., D.G.), Beijing 100083, People’s Republic of China 
Ginsenosides have demonstrated pharmacological effects in the central nervous, cardiovascular, and endocrine systems. We hypothesize that ginsenosides might mediate some of their actions by binding to the estrogen receptor, as they share many of the protective actions of estrogen in various physiological systems. The present study is aimed to determine whether ginsenoside Rg1 can act like an estrogen analog in stimulating human breast cancer cell growth as well as in the activation of estrogen response element-luciferase activity in HeLa cell. Rg1, but not its aglycone, stimulates [methyl-3H] thymidine incorporation in estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 in a dose-dependent manner (10-1510-7 M). The stimulation of MCF-7 cell proliferation by 3 x 10-13 M Rg1 can be blocked by 10-6 M of the estrogen antagonist ICI 182780. Moreover, Rg1 stimulates estrogen response element-luciferase reporter gene activity in HeLa cells with an optimal dose of 3 x 10-10 M. Such stimulation can also be blocked by 10-6 M ICI 182780. In addition, Rg1 has no effect on [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation in estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Furthermore, Rg1 failed to displace the specific binding of [3H]17-estradiol to MCF-7 cell lysates, suggesting that no direct interaction of Rg1 with estrogen receptor is needed for its estrogenic action. Our results indicate that ginsenosides Rg1 has estrogen-like activity and should be classified as a novel class of potent phytoestrogen.
Rg1은 다른 phytoestrogen인 isoflavon,coumestan,ligan,resveratol등이 milmolar,micromolar범위에서 작용하는 것과는 달리 picomolar범위에서 여성호르몬작용을 하나 estrogen수용 체에 직접 작용하는 것은 아니다.Rg1은  Estrogen 양 작용이 있으며  새로운 식물성 여성호르몬으로 분류되어야한다.

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