전 립 선 암
1.J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1926-31
Rh2 synergistically enhances paclitaxel or mitoxantrone in prostate cancer models.
? Xie X, Eberding A, Madera C, Fazli L, Jia W, Goldenberg L, Gleave M,Guns ES.
Prostate Centre at Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
PURPOSE: We explored the efficacy of the ginsenoside Rh2 and examined its impact on the effective dose of paclitaxel and mitoxantrone in the LNCaP prostate tumor model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cultured LNCaP cell viability was assessed following treatment (48 hours) with Rh2 (0 to 40 microM) alone or in combination with paclitaxel and mitoxantrone. Synergism or antagonism observed when combining treatment was calculated using CalcuSyn software (Biosoft). In addition, the inhibition of LNCaP human xenograft tumor growth was examined in vivo when Rh2 treatment was combined with chemotherapy. Harvested tumors were immunohistochemical stained with p27kip and Ki67. RESULTS: Rh2 and paclitaxel act synergistically in cultured LNCaP cells to lower ED50 and ED75 values. Rh2 and mitoxantrone are also synergistic. However, when combined as ED95, an antagonistic effect was observed in this cell line. Treatment of LNCaP tumors by Rh2 plus paclitaxel produced a significant decrease in tumor growth and serum prostate specific antigen. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an apparent but nonsignificant effect on proliferation markers in LNCaP tumors. When Rh2 and mitoxantrone were combined in vivo, there was no significant benefit observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the combination of Rh2 and paclitaxel has an effect on growth inhibition that is greater and synergistic, as demonstrated in a cultured LNCaP cell line. Conversely combining Rh2 with mitoxantrone appears to elicit no benefit. Therefore, combination therapy using chemotherapy and Rh2 requires further investigation.
PMID: 16600800 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Rh2는 전립선 암 모델에서 paclitaxel 이나 mitoxantrone를 상승적으로 강화한다.
목적: 우리는 LNCaP 전립선 종양 모델에서 Rh2의 유효성을 탐색하고paclitaxel 와 mitoxantrone 의 효과적 용량에 대한 영향을 실험하였다.
물질과 방법: 0에서 40microM의 Rh2단독 또는paclitaxel와 mitoxantrone 과 병용하여48시간 처치한 배양된 LNCaP 세포의 생존율을 분석하였다.병용 처치한 경우의 상승과 길항작용의 평가는 CalcuSyn software (Biosoft)로 계산 하였다. 나아가 생체 내에서 Rh2를 화학요법제와 병용하여 처치했을 때 LNCaP 인간 이종 이식한 종양 성장의 억제에 대한 효과를 실험하였다. 수확한 종양은 면역 해부 화학적으로 p27kip and Ki67로 염색하였다.
결과:Rh2와 paclitaxel은 상승작용을 하여 배양된 LNCaP 세포에 ED50과 ED75의 치수를 낮췄고 Rh2와 mitoxantrone도 역시 상승적이었다. 그러나 ED95와 병용 시 길항 효과가 관찰되었다. LNCaP종양에 Rh2와 paclitaxel을 합해서 처치하면 종양의 성장과 혈청 전립선 특이 항체의 의미 있는 감소가 있었다. LNCaP종양세서 증식 표식에 대한 면역 해부 화학적 분석은 변명하지만 의미 없는 효과를 보여주었다. 생체 내에서 Rh2와 mitoxantrone의 병용은 의미 있는 이익은 관찰되지 않았다.
결론: Rh2와 paclitaxel의 병용은 배양된 LNCaP세포에서 보여줬듯이 성장억제가 크고 상승적이다. 반대로 Rh2와 mitoxantrone의 병용은 이득이 없음을 보여준다. 따라서 화학요법제와 Rh2의 병용 요법은 더 많은 연구가 필요하다
2. Life Sci. 2000 Aug 4;67(11):1297-306.
Anti-proliferative effect of ginseng saponins on human prostate cancer cell line.
Liu WK, Xu SX, Che CT.Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories. firstname.lastname@example.org
Ginseng is a medicinal herb widely used in Asian countries, and many of its pharmacological actions are attributed to the ginsenosides. In a study of the anti-proliferative activity of ginsenosides using human prostatecarcinoma LNCaP cell line, ginsenoside Rg3 displayed growth inhibitory activity. The cells lost its adherent property after incubation in the presence of 250 microM of ginsenoside for 48h. The expression of biomarker genes, including prostate specific antigen (PSA), androgen receptor (AR) and 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR), and that of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), were suppressed. Ginsenoside Rg3 induced classic apoptotic morphology and interfered with the expression of apoptosis-related genes, bcl-2 and caspase-3, in LNCaP cells, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Taken our results together, we suggested that ginsenoside Rg3 activated the expression of cyclin-kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27, arrested LNCaP cells at G1 phase, and subsequently inhibited cell growth through a caspase3-mediated apoptosis mechanism.
PMID: 10972198 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Rg3는 caspase3를 매개로 세포 자가 소멸을 유도하여 세포 증식을 억제한다고 생각 된다.
3. Arch Pharm Res. 2004 Apr;27(4):429-35
Effects of ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells.
Kim HS, Lee EH, Ko SR, Choi KJ, Park JH, Im DS.College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, San 30, Chang-Jun-dong, Keum-Jung-gu, Busan 609-735, Korea.
Ginseng has an anti-cancer effect in several cancer models. This study was to characterize active constituents of ginseng and their effects on proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC3. Cell proliferation was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, the intracellular calcium concentration by a dual-wavelength spectrophotometer system, effects on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases by Western blotting, and cell attachment and morphologic changes were observed under a microscope. Among 11 ginsenosides tested, ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 inhibited the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. EC50s of Rg3 and Rh2 on PC3 cells were 8.4 microM and 5.5 microM, respectively, and 14.1 microM and 4.4 microM on LNCaP cells, respectively. Both ginsenosides induced cell detachment and modulated three modules of MAP kinases activities differently in LNCaP and PC3 cells. These results suggest that ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2-induced cell detachment and inhibition of the proliferation of prostate cancer cells may be associated with modulation of three modules of MAP kinases.
PMID: 15180309 [PubMed - in process]